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      The parenthetical statement in the second sentence is incorrect. Democrats held a majority in the House; Republicans did not gain a majority (their first in 40 years) until the 1994 election.

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      “I was reading through Chapter 3 and saw that there is some confusion between which Charles was responsible for chartering certain colonies. I think it may just be a recurring typo? Charles I is credited with New York and the Carolinas, both of which were founded after he had been executed.”

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      When a student searches up a term in the search box the chapters that they show as results should take you directly to where the word you were looking for is instead of the top of the chapter. By bringing a student to the chapter page does not even let a student know which subsection the term is in. This comment is for all chapters not just this one.

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    • Comment on 30. The Recent Past on April 28th, 2017

      This sentence is missing a comma before the and (which links two independent clauses). Should read: The collapse of the Soviet Union brought neither global peace nor stability, and the attacks of September 11, 2001 plunged the United States into interminable conflicts around the world. 

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    • Comment on 28. The Unraveling on December 8th, 2016

      You mentioned previously in one of the paragraphs that Robert F. Kennedy was assassinated. Yet, Dr. King was just killed. I think this sentence should be changed to assassinated.

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      In the passage, “Did the new arrivals assimilate together in the American “melting pot”—becoming just like those already in the United States—or did they retain—and sometimes even strengthen—their traditional ethnic identities?” It tells me a lot on how immigrants reformed America in becoming the big Melting Pot it is today. Everyone from different cultures coming into America and help building it.  But they never denied their ethnic traditions and applied it to their new home. For today, many cultures have been accepted by all. Even though there are many who continue to become ignorant with many ethnic groups, but sooner or later, the world will educate themselves about everyone in this world.

    • Comment on 18. Life in Industrial America on February 4th, 2017

      In the passage, “Emancipation unsettled the southern social order. When Reconstruction regimes attempted to grant freedpeople full citizenship rights, anxious whites struck back. From their fear, anger, and resentment they lashed out, not only in organized terrorist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan, but in political corruption, economic exploitation, and violent intimidation.” White people must really hated freed black men. And their a bunch of assholes for thinking so. But in a way, I can see that they didn’t want Blacks taking over and try to do business their own way. White men have been blinded by the fact that they were the big dogs and what they say is law. And if black men were to intervene with this moral code, then of course there would be chaos. Much like many of us, wouldn’t you hate it if someone else took something that you worked hard for? For today, many white people are willing to share their rights and freedoms with many different cultures. Although our election determined people who are still holding grudges, there are those who are capable of being equal with everyone.

    • Comment on 18. Life in Industrial America on February 4th, 2017

      In the passage, “By the turn of the century, two technologies pioneered by Edison—the phonograph and motion pictures—stood ready to revolutionize leisure and help create the mass entertainment culture of the twentieth century.” The phonograph and motion pictures I would say were the first technologies that embarked on the idea of social media. With the success of these technologies, it sparked a form of communication where everyone is sharing stories, thoughts and ideas with everybody because of these devices. Today, we all know them as smartphones and movies. These devices have greatly evolved tech wise, but the concept still remains.

    • Comment on 18. Life in Industrial America on February 4th, 2017

      In the passage, “Immigrants crowded into the cities, which grew upward and outward.” Immigrants began to takeover America. Which led to the process of making a mixed America rather than a white or colored America. It was an ultimate mix. Today, even though some ethnic groups are still the minority, white men will no longer be the majority. In a few years, America will truly be a melting pot, where there is no more than the other sort of ideal.

  • Jacquelyn

    • Comment on 00. Introduction on September 7th, 2017

      What’s up everyone, it’s my first pay a visit at this web
      page, and article is really fruitful for me, keep up posting these posts.

  • Jairo Marshall

    • Comment on 16. Capital and Labor on August 22nd, 2016

      “temporary “fusion” movement” makes no sense–recommend editing out the word movement as it appears redundant.

  • James

    • Comment on 25. The Cold War on May 1st, 2017

      It says “convicted on changes of…” when I think it’s supposed to say “convicted on CHARGES of”.

  • Jared Taber

    • Comment on 03. British North America on November 30th, 2016

      The Quinnipiac River is separated from the Connecticut River Valley by the Metacomet Ridge. It would be more accurate to say that New Haven was settled at the mouth of the Quinnipiac River on Long Island Sound.

  • Jay

  • Jeannie

    • Comment on 17. Conquering the West on September 6th, 2017

      I got this web page from my buddy who informed me regarding this website and now
      this time I am browsing this website and reading very informative articles at this time.

  • Jeff Hampson

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on July 18th, 2017

      The opening sentence could be improved by including the word political, as “mass participation of African Americans” is somewhat vague.  Maybe, “mass political participation of African Americans.”

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on July 18th, 2017

      This paragraph seems out of place.  It makes more sense after Paragraph 19.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on July 18th, 2017

      Douglas (one S) Wilder

  • jenihinevesta.uz

    • Comment on Feedback Instructions on September 9th, 2017

      We’re a group of volunteers and starting a brand new
      scheme in our community. Your site provided us with helpful information to work
      on. You have done an impressive task and our entire community might be grateful to you.

  • Jerry Simmons

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      Britain relied on colonies for raw materials: lumber and tobacco

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      currency wasn’t the same in every colony

      britain prefered gold or silver rather than paper that can lose value quickly

      Board of Trade restricted paper money — Currency Acts 1751 and 1763 because of these problems. Trade btw brit and americans hampered by lack of standard money

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      to encourage consumerism on both sides of the atlantic trade, credit was used to allow families to buy things but this led to many americans to be in debt.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      New England colonies, that were islands, were widely profitable. ( Jamaica, Barbados, Leeward Islands, Grenada, St. Vincent and Dominica)

      Caribbean: sugar cane

      Barbados: Lumber, and deforested island to make room for sugar plantations. Ordered house frames from New England.

      Caribbean colonists relied on livestock.

      Most lucrative=slave trade

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      Caribbean benefited North America by satisfying the North Americans sugar cravings and need for mahogany wood.

      1680 sugar exports boomed and valued more than exports of continental colonies.

       

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      Sugar Act 1764 (continuing with stamp act and town shed duties) taxed sugar.

      Patriots used domestic goods (homespun cloth)

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      Consumer revolution = growth

      Cities crossroads for movement of people and goods

      NY and Boston (17th cent.)= planned and reflected medieval cities of Europe.

      Phil. and Charleston = planned to be urban

      Annapolis and Williamsburg= regularity and order with government

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      1775 largest cities in British North America = Boston, Newport, NY, Phil. and Charleston

      Social Ladder from lowest to highest= laboring class, shopkeepers, artisans, and merchant elites.

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      Largest cities in Birt. NA= Boston, Newport, NY, Phil. and Charleston.

      Social Ladder= (lower) laboring classes, (middling sort): shopkeepers, artisans, and (higher) merchant elites.

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      enslaved pop = rural areas

      domestic servants and in skilled trades

      1725 and 1775 = significant for northern (urban) residents who wanted to participate in maritime economy.

      Massachusetts= 1st slave colony in New England

      NY= slaves trade from Dutch

      Charleston (southern cities)= slaves important to market economy

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      1750 slavery was legal in NA English colony.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      Virginias first slaves = 1619

      Passed land down to eldest male heir = plantations grew and tobacco grew = slavery population grew to 40%

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      1705 = House of Burgesses passed slave code

      Virginia planters used law to max. profit of slaves.

       

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      John Locke 1669 = legalized slavery in the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina

      Carolina slaveholders = British Caribbean sugar island

      slave code = defiant slaves could be beaten, branded, mutilated, or castrated.

      1740 = able to kill a rebellious slave, or murder a slave (minor misdemeanor)

      freeing slaves = banned

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 6th, 2016

      Factors combined to give South Carolina slaves more independence.

      West African planters needed for rice cultivation because of level of immunity to malaria.

      salves from Senegambia prized!

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Carolina rice plantations = task system

      once slaves finished tasks of the day they were able to grow some crops of their own. (participation in underground market = economic and cultural autonomy)

       

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Stono Rebellion (Sept. 1739) = slaves headed to Fort Mose (free black settlement on GA-FL border).

      Though unsuccessful it showed South Carolina planters that slaves would fight for freedom.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Slaves often employed on larger farms to grow cereal grains.

      enslaved africans worked with European farmers on NY Hudson Valley “patroon ships”

      NYC economy reliance on slavery increased

      1712 slave rebellion in NY

      1741 another planned rebellion

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Quakers were against slavery.

      1758 Quakers in Pennsylvania disowned people who engaged in slavery.

      1772 slave trading Quakers were expelled..

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Slavery didn’t take off in: Massachusetts, Connecticut, or New Hampshire, New England

      Absence of cash crops (tobacco or rice) minimized economic use of slavery.

      every major port participated in transatlantic trade (newport, rhode island and new England).

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Democracy in Europe = oligarchy

      Only a tiny portion of males could vote

      North American colonies widespread white suffrage.

      Assemblies taxed, colonial americans sued and lawyers had a greater role in American politics

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      American society less tightly controlled = interest groups rise

      difference between modern politics and colonial political culture = lack of distinct, stable, political parties.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      political structures fell under: provincial, proprietary and charter.

      provincial: New Hamp., NY, Virgin, NC, SC and GA. tightly controlled by crown, had crown governors who could veto choices made in those colonies.

      proprietary: Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey and Maryland. same as provincial BUT governors were appointed by LORD PROPRIETOR (person who purchased or received rights of colony from crown, have more freedoms)

      Charter: Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. Formed by political cooperations or interest groups. (power distributed between executive, legislative and judiciary branches).

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      colonial  gov. broken down into 2 divisions: council and assembly.

      council: governor’s cabinet

      assembly: approved taxes, colonial budge and check power of governor to make sure he didn’t take too much power from colonial gov.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Social contract pioneered by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      man’s civic duty to support government by voting, paying taxes and service in militia.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      women’s role became complex.

      more land=more resources=greater fertility=earlier marriage

      family sizes shrink (end of 1700s) because wives control their bodies.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      romantic love changed husband/wife relationships (sentimental literary movement)

      after independence wives began to not only provide emotional sustenance to husbands but principles of republican citizenship.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      americans bound in chattel slavery, marriage remained informal arrangement rather than codified legal relationship.

      white women: coverture = lost all political and economic rights to husband

      divorce rates rose

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      couples turned to newspapers as a source of expression (print culture: how books and other printed objects are made)

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Establishment of Virginia (1607) = printing was unnecessary

      Berkeley’s death (1677) = printing in southern colonies revived

      William Parks (1726) Annapolis: Chesapeake had stable trade in printing and books

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      New England print = published in London

      Stephen Daye’s first print shop (1639) shaky

      1660 the first bible published ( samuel green and marmaduke johnson)

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Massachusetts = center of printing until Philadelphia overtook Boston (1770)

      Philadelphia’s rise: benjamin franklin (1723)= parts scholar and businessman and german immigrants = demand for german lang. press

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Grandchildren of 1st settlers worried their faith had suffered. This caused the Great Awakening.

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      1st revival: in Congregational churches of New England (1730s)

      People discussed cleansing their life from worldly concerns and return to a more religious lifestyle.

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Preachers successful in spreading spirit of revival.

      Preachers abandoned traditional sermons and in favor of outside meetings where they could put congregation into an emotional frenzy.

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      George Whitefield encouraged apathy and had a simple message that was thundering against sin and for Jesus Christ.

      He was able to make revivals popular.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      1742 (connecticut preacher) James Davenport told congregation to dance around naked in circles at night laughing and screaming.

      This extremism created a divide between the New lights and Old light by the 1740s and 1750s

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Edwards and Whitfield encouraged people to question the world around them. Created language for individualism.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      american militiamen fought for Brit against French Catholics and Indian allies

      Brit towns (located on border btw New England and New France) dealt with intermitted raiding by French-allied Native Americans.

      Catholicism threatened to capture protestant lands and souls.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Feud over North American empires started in 1754 when G. Washington killed a French diplomat; caused the 7 years war.

      French achieved early victories; burned Fort William Henry in 1757, defeated General Braddock on Fort Duquesne, and General Abercrombie on For Carillon (mainly because of Native Americans).

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      War began in Europe in 1756, Brit-allied Frederick 2 of Prussia invaded Saxony.

      Rance, Austria, Russia and Sweden attacked Prusia and few German states allied with Prussia.

      European war: Brit supported Prussians and minor western German states of Hesse-Kassel and Braunschweig- Wolfbuttel

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      French defeated Brits German allies and forced them to surrender after Battle of Hastenbeck (1757).

      Austrians defeats Prussia in Battle of Kolin (1757)

      Frederick of Prussia defeated French at Battle of Rossbach (November 1757)

      allowed brit to rejoin the war in europe
      defeated Austrians at Battle of Luthen reclaiming province of Silesia.

      Brits consistently defeated French.

      Rober Clive defeated French at Battle of Plassey (1757)

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Victories over French brought the fall of French Canada.

      War in North America ended in 1760 with Brit capture of Montreal.

      Brits fought spanish (who entered the war in 1762)

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      7 yrs war ENDED with peace treaties of Paris and Hubertusburg (1763)

      Brit took over much of Canda and North America from French. But it was more than the Brits could control which caused tensions.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      American colonists happy that the Catholic France were defeated because they felt secure that catholics in Quebec couldn’t threaten them.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Constant conflict with Catholic France and trying to stop the spread of catholicism.

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      1761 Neolin prophet received a vision from Master of Life that told him that the only way to get into heave is to cast off corrupting influence of Europeans, is by expelling the Brits from Indian country.

      he preached avoidance of alcohol
      return to traditional rituals
      pan-indian unity

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Neolin’s disciples Pontiac took his prophets words to heart and began the Pontiac War.

      pan-indians helped from great lakes, Appalachians, and Mississippi river.
      6 month siege of brit fort
      In May, Natives captured forts: sandusky, saint joseph and miami.
      June, Ottawas and Ojibwes captured fort michilimackinac

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      The war is partly because of the prophet Neolin and partly because of the British gaining so much land and not keeping equal relations and only wanting money.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      Pontiac’s War lasted until 1766

      disease and shortage of supplies undermined indian war effort

      july 1766 Pontia met with Brit official dilomat William Johnson at Fort Ontario and settled for peace.

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      7 years war pushed 13 colonies closer together (politically and culturally)

      After 7 decades of warfare Appalachian Mountains was their reward.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      7 years war was expensive and the Brits thought their subjects should pay for some of the expenses. They taxed colonists on paper, tea, stamps, molasses. This caused bond between Britian and the colonies to be threatened.

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      creation of notes came about allowing people to deposit a certain amount of tobacco in a warehouse and the value of the deposit that could be traded for money.

       

    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on September 7th, 2016

      1690 Massachusetts = first colony to issue paper money = bills of credit

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Glorious Revolution area (1688): 2 causes to failure of defining colonies’ relation to empire and institute.

      1) Britian was always in a war which cost a lot of $$(War of Spanish Succession and 7 years’ war)

      2. Political Division: Old Whigs (who wanted land and resources) vs Patriot Whigs (who wanted to manufacture land)

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Colonists thrived because of Britain’s hands-off approach to colonies.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Samuel Adams (Boston Gazette), described each colony as a “separate body politic” from Britain.

      Creating of colonial assembly.

      Board of Traded tried to limit the assemblies power but their power only grew.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Political culture leaned toward republicanism: Putting the public before self.

      small portion held these ideas but it was accepted.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      1740’s Enlightenment and the Great Awakening combined and challenged older thoughts on authority.

      Philosopher with greatest impact John Locke.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Locke made the idea of education spread.

      1739-40 George Whitefield spoke about conversion (taking responsibility for one’s own unmediated relationship with God). Whitefield, like Locke, made people question authority.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Post-war empire cost a lot of money not including the expenses that led to the increase in their national debt.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      King George 3 (1760) brought Tories.

      Royal Proclamation (1763)

      Ordered forbade settlement west of Appalachian Mts. in order to limit wars with Native Americans.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      1764 2 reforms passed.

      Sugar Act: Done to stop the widespread smuggling of molasses in New England.

      Currency Act: restricted paper money.

      These acts increased taxation and restricted liberties.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      1765 Parliament passed the Stamp Act.

      1764 Sugar Act was created to be a direct tax. First direct tax.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      3 forms of resistance to Stamp Act

      legislative resistance by elites: 1st- passed resolutions in assemblies: Virginia Resolves passed by House of Burgesses on May 30, 1765 (colonists entities to all liberties, privileges etc.) 2nd- Calling of Stamp Act Congress in NYC in Oct. 1765, nince colonies sent delegates. 3rd- Declaration of Rights and Grievances to king (included trial by jury abridged by Sugar Act)

      economic: Boycotts of GB’s goods spread to NYC, and Philadelphia, until January 1766, London merchants sent a letter to parliament saying they were losing money because of the act.

      POPULAR PROTEST: Violent riots broke out in Boston. Andrew Oliver burned down a building he owned. Nov 16, the original 12 distributors resigned.Sons of Liberty took control over colonists. February 1766 Stamp Act repealed. Declaratory Act put in allowing parliament to have full control.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Townshend Acts passed in June 1767 to gain revenue which created new customs duties on common items; lead, glass, paint and tea. Ability to have American Board of Customs Commissioners.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Elite, middling, and working class participated together on more boycotting.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Women became involved in gathering signatures, creating commentaries in the newspaper and making clothing for the community.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Non-consumption agreements divided the cultural relationship colonists had with their mother country.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Boston Massacre: March 5, 1770- a crowd gathered around the Custom House and threw things at it and a small # of soldiers came. The crowd was unhappy with that and became enraged. The soldiers killed 5 people. One of the ring leaders died Crispus Attucks.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      March 1770 Parliament repealed the new duties except the one on tea.

      During the Stamp Act the colonists weren’t resisting cohesively or as coordinated as they were during the Townshend Act.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Colonists and mother country back on good terms in 1770.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      1773 Parliament passed the Regulating Act, which gave the failing East India Company the ability to sell tea without the import duties (Mainly because EIC opened Britian money).

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      The people resisted because they didn’t like the idea of Parliament taxing them.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Tea Act said that it was a duty to pay when the ship unloaded.

      November of 1773 Boston Sons of Liberty led by Samuel Adams and John Hancock said they would prevent the tea from lading.

      Men dressed as Mohawk Indians and either seized or dumped tea in Charleston, Philadelphia and New York.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      51 Edenton, NC women signed an agreement to support boycotts.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts): 1st- Boston Port Act shut down harbor and cut off trade. 2nd- Massachusetts Government Act colonia gov. under British control, which took away assemblies and town meetings. 3rd Administration of Justice Act allowed any royal official accused of a crime to be tried in a Britain court, rather than Massachusetts. 4th- Quartering Act allowed British army in colonists’ homes.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Ministry didn’t expect other colonies coming to aid of Massachusetts. Colonists sent food, Virginia’s House of Burgesses called for prayer and fasting to show support.

      Massachusetts patriots created Provincial Congress (1774) they seized control of local and county gov. courts.

      Early 1774 Committees of Correspondence and other assemblies were made except in Georgia.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Committees of Correspondence: sent delegates to Continental Congress.

      1st Continental Congress Sept. 5, 1774 where they issued documents including Declaration of Rights and Grievances.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Congress issued a document known as the “continental Association”. The association said the people were unhappy with the current government. It also said that every committee has to be chosen in every county, city and town.

      Delegates also agreed to a continental non-importation, non consumption and non exploration agreement to stop slave trade.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      Colonists divided. Some were patriots and some were faithful to the King.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 13th, 2016

      April 19th, 1775 Brits were going to seize local militias’ arms and powder stores in Lexington and Concord.

      Both met at Lexington Green. An unexpected shot led to constant fighting up to Concord.

      In June, militia set up fortifications on Breed’s Hill where they defeat the British. (Battle of Bunker Hill)

      Different parts of the colonies were conflicted with who to support because they would be “akin to declaring war”

      Congress made a promise and agreed to adopt Massachusetts militia and form a Continental Army, George Washington was commander-in-chief. But Congress was still trying to reconcile with the mother country.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      Before the petition was delivered to England on August 13, 1775 the King missed a Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition (he said no to the petition because he thought it would lead to an independent empire).

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      Thomas Paine’s Common sense denounced the monarch and challenged the logic behind the British Empire.

      Sparked more people for independence.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      Lord Dunmore created a proclamation for slaves. After the Somerset case in 1772 slavery was abolished on the British mainland.

      However, colonists threatened slaves into staying.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      New York didn’t vote because they were under threat of British invasion.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      The document outlined a list of grievances that colonists had with many actions the British took during the 1760s  and 70s.

      An early draft blamed Brits for transatlantic slave trade and discouraging attempts by colonists to promote abolition.

      SC and GA were removes for opposing.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      British attacked in Oct. 1776 on Brooklyn and Manhattan and won.

      Washington launched a surprise attack on the Hessian camp at Trenton on Christmas Day. I twas a success.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      1777 Brit. General John Burgoyne wanted the Hudson River, but the absence of General Howe and his forces (who received the nations capital, Philadelphia), led to General Burgoyne’s loss.

      1778 “treat of Amity and Commerce” signed. This treaty turned colonial rebellion into global war once Brit and French fighting broke out in Europe and India.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      1778 the British shifted their attentions to the south where they campaigned for more support from Virginia, SC and GA. British didn’t have the control needed.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      1781 while the British was fighting everyone, the Colonists decided to gain assistance from the French who circled Gen. Cornwallis who was waiting for supplies from NY.

      British had nothing left, so they surrendered.

      Peace negotiations took place in France and the war came to an end on September 3, 1783.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      Costs of war: soldiers died at Vallery Forge in 1777-8 from disease.

      Women had to take care of the family and take on men’s duties. (Abigail Adams and Mary Silliman important women).

      Slaves were able to determine lives after enlistment. 30,000 – 100,000 slaves deserted their masters during the war.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      For Patriots (and those who remained neutral) victory brought new political, social and economic opportunities and new uncertainties.

      War killed various communities (in the South).

      Women thought the nation would be widowed.

      War debt and depreciated currencies.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      Immediate consequence: creation of state constitutions in 1776 and 1777

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      popular sovereignty: power comes from the people

      Pennsylvania’s first state constitution was most radical and democratic. Had unicameral legislature, all free men could vote,.

      Massachusetts’ constitution passed in 1780. Less democratic. Established a 3 branch government based on checks and balances.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      Continental Congress ratified Articles of Confederation in 1781.

      Shortcoming: Congress had no power to levy or collect taxes, regulate foreign or interstate commerce, or establish a federal judiciary.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      Political participation grew; voting.

      Society was less deferential and more egalitarian, less aristocratic and more meritocratic.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      Revolution opened new markets and new trade relationships.

      Western territories for invasion and settlement which created new domestic markets.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      No civic equality for women, only some incorporation “republican mothers.”

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      60,000 loyalist left America.

      Treaty of Paris promised loyalist their land lost from war but Americans reneged throughout the 1780s.

      Loyalist on losing side of revolution and many lost everything.

       

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      1783 thousands of Loyalist former slaves fled with British army.

      Black loyalists, continued to face social and economic marginalization, including restrictions on land ownership within British Empire.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      Northern states passed gradual emancipation laws.

      Slave revolts began for freedom.

      Revolution failed to reconcile slavery with new egalitarian republican societies. This filed over in the 1830s and 1840s and effectively tore the nation in two in the 1850s.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on September 14th, 2016

      *owed

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      1786-87 Massachusetts farmers struggled with debt and wanted the government to protect them, but the government only supported lenders.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      These farmers took up arms.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Daniel Shays and “Shaysites” protested/rioted for their rights.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Different angle: Gov. James Bowdoin saw Shaysites as rebels who wanted to take control of the government through violence.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Shay’s rebellion caused debate over:

      1. central government (James Madison) or state government

      2. anarchy

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      1787: revision of Articles of Confederation in Pennsylvania with 12/13 states (Rhode Island didn’t send a delegate).

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Biggest problem for the government was the inability to levy taxes. Paying back for the war was pushed on the states, which was hard to pay for.

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      James Madison, wanted to create a new constitution called the Virginia Plan (named after his home state).

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Madison believed in an extended republic.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Virginia Plan: 3 branches — legislative, executive, and judicial.

      Legislature or Congress: 2 houses which allowed every state to be represented based on pop. or tax base. Able to veto over state laws.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Delegates agreed the AOC failed but disagreed on what should replace it.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Smaller states wanted to keep the one vote per state. (Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman in favor)

      Larger states wanted the Virginia Plan, because of the increase in representation. (Pennsylvania delegate James Wilson in favor)

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Roger Sherman’s Great Compromise: Lower house or House of Reps. where members were assigned for each state based on the pop. Upper House or Senate, where each state had 1 vote.

      Ea. state had 2 senators who independently vote.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person for representation and tax.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      June 1, James Wilson said the executive branches power will be given to one person.

      September: It was decided the president will hold this power and will be elected by the electoral college.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Constitution was sent to Congress to be proposed which was done in New York.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Constitutional Convention voted down a proposal from Virginia’s George Mason (author of Virginia’s state DOR)

      Feds. vs Anti- Feds.

      Feds thought having a bill of rights would limit future citizens from new rights.

      Anti-Feds said without it the citizens could risk losing their liberty to the government.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Arguments from Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison called the Federalist Papers (1787 and 1788 NY).

      1788 in Massachusetts: Constitution was narrowly approved.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Convention in Richmond, Virginia , June 1788: Feds- James Madison, Edmund Randolph, and John Marshall vs Anti-Feds- Patrick Henry and George Mason.

      89-79 vote in favor of ratification in Virginia.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      July 2, 1788 the Constitution was in effect.

      However, after G. Washington was inaugurated as president N.Y and Rhode Island had just completed their convention to ratify the constitution.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      1791 Bill of Rights.

      James Madison went against his originally sentiments toward the Bill of Rights.

      He was elected to the House of Reps, because he promised his Virginians the list of rights.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Problems with the Bill of Rights: Women had no protection, slavery continued, and men with property could only vote.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Slave trade: Northerns disagreed with the practice because it was immoral and because they knew the more slaves the people in the south had the more political power they had.

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      New England and the Deep South agreed to a “dirty compromise” 1787.

      1808  Atlantic Slave trade stopped for 3 reasons:

      1. 1807 Britian was going to outlaw slavery and the US didn’t want concede to the moral ground of the rival.

      2. Haitian Revolution (1791-1804), was a successful slave revolt against the French in the West Indies. This success put fear in the white Americans.

      3. Haitian Revolution stopped France’s ability to expand. In 1803 the US purchased the Louisiana Territory from the French. People then questioned if the large territory would be used for slavery expansion but Thomas Jefferson thought of ending slave trade, to keep the US as a white man’s republic.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Ban on slave trade wasn’t effective.

      People didn’t have to free illegally imported Africans, because it was up to the state to decide on what they wanted to do.

      The new government protected slavery as much as it expanded democratic rights and privileges for white men.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      G. Washington’s cabinet reflected political tensions with John Adams as VP, Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of Treasury (both supported American industry). While Thomas Jefferson was Secretary of State (supported the restriction of federal power).

      Federalist vs Republican

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Alexander Hamilton believed in self interest.

      Governments role to Hamilton:

      1. state protects private property from theft.

      2. harness citizens’ desire for property, that way private individuals and the state could benefit.

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Hamilton also believed that state shouldn’t disperse property equally.

      Inequality: “The great and fundamenttal distinction in Society.”

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Hamilton believed the government is a place where the rights of the wealthy are stored. He then created a financial plan to achieve his belief.

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      1. Government takes care of the unpaid debt from the war which equated to $25 million.

      2. Congress creates a band (Bank of the US).

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Goal: Combine federal power and economic vitality

      State creditors would turn old notes into Treasury and get new federal notes for the same value.

      These bonds were thought of as an engine of business and an instrument for industry and commerce.

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Problems:

      1. Paying the full face value of an old note meant paying more for the note that was paid for at a cheaper price before.

      2.Southerns objected because they didn’t want to pay again for New Englanders debt.

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      However, President Washington and Congress agreed with Hamilton, and by 1794 98% of the country’s debt was converted into new fed. bonds.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Opposition of the Bank said it was unconstitutional.

      Hamilton rebutted by explaining the the needs the bank satisfies:

      1. Depository for federal funds.

      2. Prints paper banknotes backed by gold/silver.

      3. Agents would limit inflation.

      4. Controls 20% of stock, while 80% was owned by private investors (“intimate connexion”).

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      1791 Congress approved a 20 year charter for the Bank of the US.

      Bank stock + federal bond = $70 million in new financial instruments

      Securities were created, which allowed the government to borrow more money (1790s).

       

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      1791 excise tax on production, sale, and consumption of various goods. One including Whiskey.

       

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Grains were traded for alcohol production (in the West).

      Whiskey tax put a burden on western farmers.

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      (west Penn. in 1791) 16 men dressed as women assaulted a tax collector named Robert Johnson in response to the whiskey tax.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      July 1794 armed farmers attacked federal marshals, tax collectors and burned down houses.

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Armed force of 7,000 led by attorney David Bradford robbed the US mail and went to Pittsburgh.

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Washington responded by sending 3 distinguished Pennsylvanians to meet the rebels and peacefully talk.

      September 19th, the 13,000 militiamen that gathered n Carlisle, Penn were lead in the field by Washington but were then passed over to Henry Lee.

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Hamilton oversaw the arrests and trials of rebels.

      Whisky rebellion showed that the government could control internal tension, but it also showed that poor western farmers were their enemy.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Foreign trade = relationship with Great Britain

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      April 1793, G. Washington said the US would be neutral with trade.

      Hamilton and John Jay sailed to London to talk about a treaty that pleased the US and GB.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Jefferson and Madison disagreed with the negotiations because they mistrusted GB and favored France because they were a new revolutionary state.

      Treaty with Brit would favor the north over the agricultural south.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      November 1794: John Jay signed a treaty of amity commerce, and navigation with the Brits.

      Brits had to leave militiary positions in NW territory by 1796, US agreed Brit was the favored trading partner,  US agreed to allying with Brit in conflict with France, and Brits would compensate for American Merchants losses.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Didn’t end impressment though.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 18th, 2016

      Federalists were seeking to preserve social stability.

      1789 French revolted against their king.

      Americans were happy about the French Revolution. They were so happy John Randolph, a Virginia planter, named two of his horses “Jacobin” and “Sans-Culotte” after French revolutionary factions.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      April 1793, Edmond-Charles Genet arrived in the US.

      He encouraged the American people to fight against a British ally, Spain, but G. Washington refused.

      Genet threatened to appeal to the American people but Washington demanded he go back to France.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      Radical coalition of revolutionaries took over France called the “Reign of Terror.”

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      People who thought the revolution was spiraling out of control became federalist and those who were hopeful of the revolution were republican.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      1796 (late) there was a new president, that was peacefully elected.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      The new president was John Adams. Washington’s VP.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      The french gov. responded to Jay’s treaty by the authorization of attacking American shipping.

      Adams sent envoys to France in 1797.

      XYZ Affair, led to many infuriated Americans who wanted war.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      1798: In Charleston people watched the ocean because they feared the French navy’s arrival.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      1798 a Massachusetts minister, Jedidiah Morse, said that the French Revolution was started because of a conspiracy led by a anti-christian organization called the Illuminati. It was a hoax though.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      Quasi-War was fought in the Atlantic between the French naval vessels and American merchant ships.

      Congress took action by creating 2 laws: Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws that were passed in 1798 were created to stop French agents and sympathizers from changing America’s resistance.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      Alien Act: allowed government to deport foreign nationals or those who could be a threat to the nations security.

      Sedition Act: allowed government to prosecute anyone who spoke badly about the government.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      1798 Federalists agreed that free speech only meant a lack of prior censorship or restraint, and that unruly speech made society less free not more.

      Alien and Sedition Acts represented a continuous conservative American revolution rather than a radical one.

       

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      Backlash from the Alien and Sedition Acts:

      1. People disagreed and felt like everyone should be able to say whatever they want without any punishment. Ex: NY lawyer, Tunis Wortman demanded absolute independence and Virginia Judge George Hay wanted any publication criminal to be exempt from legal punishment.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      2. James Madison (and Thomas Jefferson) opposed the acts on constitutional grounds.

      1798: Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions argued that the government’s power was limited to the power expressed in the constitution. They had no more or less.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      1776 American state governments didn’t observe the separation of church and state because they thought it would keep social order.

      By 1833 Massachusetts stopped supporting the religious denomination; this process was called disestablishment.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      Disestablishment began before the creation of the consititution.

      South Carolina (Anglican before Revolution), dropped the denominational restrictions in its 1778 constitution.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      SC still had to balance religious freedom with practice to keep the social order. Officeholders however were still expected to be Christian.

      Requirements of being Christian were: oaths witnessed by God, compelled by religious belief to be honest, and called to live according to the bible. However as new Christian denominations came about (1780-1840) more Christians were outside of the definition.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      SC ended the establishment law during 1790.

      1833 Massachusetts support for the Congregational church ended.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      Thomas Jefferson and James Madison supported disestablishment because it took away from the people’s freedom between the relationship of church and state.

      Jefferson proposed a Statue for Religion Freedom in Virginia state assembly twice. Once in 1779 and the second time in 1785.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      1787 C.C agreed that the national government should not have an official religion.

      1791 the 1st Amendment guaranteed religious liberty.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on September 19th, 2016

      *bank

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 21st, 2016

      Gabriel (slave) led 1,000 slaves to attack Richmond (August 1800), and end slavery in Virginia.

      His plan was exposed on August 30th, and Gabriel then was hanged alongside other slaves who decided to revolt.

      This revolt was significant because it was an example to other slaves, that showed them not to go against slavery, and this revolt led to increased restrictions in Virginia.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 21st, 2016

      The revolt effected Virginia’s white residents because the revolt showed that blacks are capable of the creation of sophisticated and violent revolution, and that they know of other slave revolts, despite the white residents efforts of trying to hide it.

      These slaves found out first hand after July 1793 when slave holding refugees from Haiti arrived in Virginia with slaves.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 21st, 2016

      The Haitian Revolt (1791-1804) was an inspiration to African Americans and a nightmare for whites.

      1829: David Walker, black abolitionist in Boston, wore an Appeal. This appeal talks about the need to separate from slavery and racism because blacks can achieve what whites achieve if not more.

      1826: 3rd College Graduate of the US, John Russwurm, commencement address at Bowdoin College, where he discussed that in Haiti there is a republican government and ALL rights/liberties are respected.

      1838: Colored American, early black newspaper

      The revolt sent messages that enslaved and free blacks can’t be overlooked from the conversation of liberty and equality.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 21st, 2016

      Whites resorted to violence to instill white supremacy and pro-slavery, by limiting social and political lives of people of color.

      Bobalition broadsides, published in Boston in the 1810s became the basis of racist ideas that thrived in the 19th century.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 24th, 2016

      Henry Moss (Virginia slave) = “a great curiosity” 1792: white spots 1795: completely white

      Samuel Stanhope Smith and Dr. Benjamin Rush said the color black comes from leprosy.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 24th, 2016

      Carlus Linnaeus, Comte de Buffon, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach: divided racial types of the world accroding to skin, cranial measurements and hair.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      1787 Samuel Stanhope Smith: Essay on the Causes of the Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species

      Believed men could be whitened like Henry Moss.

      Jefferson disagreed

      1784 Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia suggested that blacks couldn’t improve mentally

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Benjamin Banneker responded to Jefferson by stating that blacks and whites are of the same flesh.

       

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Thomas Jefferson, Charles Caldwell, and Samuel George Morton believed that biologically blacks and whites were different species.

      Few people fully agreed with this but many agreed with white supremacy.

      People also realized that if the black population was whitening then it was from interracial sex, not the environment.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      1800 Jefferson elected to the presidency = victory for ordinary white Americans

      Elites didn’t want a pure democracy because it would lead to anarchy.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Jefferson wanted his admin. to be different from the Feds. Jefferson said the nation’s strength came from the confidence of rational people.

      Feds imagined a union that had expansive state power and public submission to the rule of aristocratic elites.

       

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Jefferson saved the nation’s republican principle

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      The definition of citizenship was changing.

      Mercy Otis Warren, female contributor to the public ratification debate over the Constitution. Which encourage other women to participate and discuss.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Republican Motherhood: women were essential because they passed on the principles of liberty to their children, which ensured that each generation had the same values.

      “Fair Daughters of America” = should only marry republicans

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Jefferson reduced taxes and the government’s budget.

      Nation defense decreased
      Jefferson wanted to live in peace which led him to reduce America’s national debt.
      1803 acquisition of Louisiana from France.

      After the 7 years war, France ceded Louisiana to Spain for West Florida (an important port for western farmers)

       

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Jefferson believed it was okay to step outside of the limits that the Constitution implemented for the good of the country.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Foreign policy: Embargo of 1870

      outraged Federalists
      England, France, and Spain wouldn’t respect the policy.
      Brits continued the policy of impressment.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Pontiacs War

       

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      1765-1811 Natives kept Neolin’s message alive, which was to not rely on the American/ European goods and encouraging the peoples to resist Euro-American encroachment.

      Trout (Ottawa leader), Joseph Brant (Iroquois), Mad Dog (Creek headman), Painted Pole (Shawnee), Coocooche (Mohawk woman), Main Poc (Potawatomi), and Seneca prophet (Handsome Lake).

      Center of Pan-Indian resistance: Ohio Valley and Great Lakes (1791-95).

      W. Confederacy suffered defeat at Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Tensk. said that the Master of Life entrusted him and Tecum. the responsibility of getting natives back to their path, and get rid of the Euro-American trade and culture.

      Tensk. stressed the need for a cultural and religious renewal. (Christianity + rituals and beliefs) — apocalyptical elements

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Tecum. said the Master of Life gave him the task to bring all land back to the rightful owner.

      He offered communities an “Indian Identity” that brought Natives together.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Tecumseh partnered with Creek prophet Hillis Hadjo during the tour throughout SE IN 1811.

      After Tecum. left the Red Sticks followed in his movement will seeking to purge Creek society of Euro-American dependencies.

      Creek leaders that kept relationships with the US thought accommodation and diplomacy would push out American encroachment better than violence.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Lack of support shortened expansion.

      Red Sticks cut off by Andrew Jackson in 1813. Jackson and his forces defeated the Red Sticks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.

      Led to Treaty of Fort Jackson

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Battle of Tippecanoe 1811

      Tecum. confederation’s conflict was combined with the Brits and American Republics war in 1812.

      Tecum went through several losses at Fort Wayne and Fort Harrison which led Tecum. and his followers to tag along with Brit.

      Henry Proctor.

      Tecum’s death: Moraviantown (Ontario) Oct. 1813

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      After Jefferson retired in 1808, the embargo ended because the Brits loosened policies on American ships.

       

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Causes:

      Being neutral
      Conflicting goals and interests with those that Britain had.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Because of America’s shipping industry increased there was a higher demand for sailors, so the pay rates increased.

      American captains recruited several British sailors (30%)
      Brits wanted their men back so they went on American ships and took their men back while impressing others.
      Brits would release American men if they could prove that they were American.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      1806: Brit demanded that neutral ships had to carry their goods to Brit to pay a duty before it could get to France.

      Jeffersons Embargo: 1807 $170 million, 1808 $22 million

       

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Americans feared a Native American uprising.

      1809 Tecumseh turned his religious movement into a mili and political alliance.

      Illinois governor, William Henry Harrison was protective of the territory so he took action in Ohio Valley. (Battle of Tippecanoe)

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Republicans thought it was necessary to complete the war for independence.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      1812: War Hawks- men who would be influential after the war of 1812. Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of SC.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      June 1st, 1812 draft of a statement to go to war.

      June 18, 182 (Madison signed) US was at war.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      3 stages:

      Atlantic Theater– GB was in the Napoleonian War. US invaded Canda (1813)
      US second offensive against Canada and Great Lake. Successful (1813-14)
      Southern Theater– Andrew Jackson gained a victory at Chalmette outside of NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      July 1812, 1st offensive against Canada

      August 1812, they were defeated by Brit and Brits allies which cost them Detroit and part of Michigan.

      1813: recaptured Detroit, shattered Indian Confederacy, killed Tecum., and eliminated Brit threat.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      1813 Americans turned to the infant Navy

      “Free Trade and Sailors Rights!”

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Bigger Brit. ships were in the Napoleonic Wars and smaller ships were in North America.

      The smaller ships were no match for America.
      Brit was humiliated in single ship battles.

      Captain Phillip Broke (HMS Shannon) attacked (USS Chesapeake) Captain James Lawrence June 1, 1813.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      2 1/2 months later: USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

      Guerriere lost

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      1814: American naval victories

      Lake Champlain stopped British invasion of US on Chesapeake at Fort McHenry (Baltimore)
      Francis Scott Key: Star Spangled Banner

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Napoleon’s defeat in 1814 allowed the Brits to focus on America.

      The blockade east allowed the Brits to burn down Washington DC on August 24, 1814, and the 3rd theater came in the South.

      Brits go to New Orleans and were victorious at Lake Borgne before they lost to General Jackson in Jan. 1815.

      This victory came after the Treat of Ghent on Dec. 24, 1814.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      New England Feds met in Hartford, Connecticut to try and reduce the Republican Party’s power.

      Proposed a document:

      abolishing 3/5 rule
      president 1 term
      2/3 majority- fed believed they could limit Repubs power
      new states into the union
      regulate commerce

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      The victory at New Orleans increased support for the Madison admin. and the Feds. power continued to dwindle down.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Treaty of Ghent: made US and GB have a relationship again during the pre-war status.

      The war mattered politically and strengthened American nationalism.

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 25th, 2016

      Treasury Secretary Alber Gallatin said 1812 war made the people more American.

      U.S, continued to expand into Indian territories: new states- Tennessee, Ohio, Mississippi, and Illinois.

      1810-1830: 6,000 new post offices

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 26th, 2016

      1817: SC congressman John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay created the American System.

      Made America economically independent and encouraged commerce btw states rather than Europe and the West Indies.
      Includes: a new Bank for the US, high protective tariff, and network of internal improvements

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 26th, 2016

      People thought the project was unconstitutional, Calhoun even changed his mind.

      1812 war reinforced the nation’s importance in their political and economic life.

       

    • Comment on 07. The Early Republic on September 26th, 2016

      1823 President James Monroe created the Monroe Doctrine that declared both North and South America off-limits to new European colonization.

      Monroe wanted a strong military and an aggressive foreign policy.
      wanted to invest in canals and roads

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      Economic growth led to, class conflict, child labor, accelerated immigration, and slavery expansion.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      1807, exports rose in value.

      1816, the price of land-carriage was too high (Senate Committee Report said this).

      In the beginning of the War of 1812 American’s rushed to create networks of roads, canals, and railroads.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      State legislatures continuously charted banks, while Europeans’ money helped build the infrastructure.

      Europeans later said that the prosperity of our country comes from them.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      Depression: 1819, 1837, and 1857.

      1819, LAND

      1837, LAND and SLAVERY

      1857, RAILROADS and BONDS

      Counterfeit bills caused issues.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      Transportation Revolution: Vast lands available west of Appalachian Mts.

      Margaret Dwight’s journey from New Haven, Connecticut to Ohio was a bad journey to the western part of the country.

      19 years later (1829) Frances Trollope’s journey across Allegheny Mts from Cincinnati to the east coast was the opposite because the 1st interstate project was created.

       

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      1825, Erie Canal (NY): linked Great Lakes to Hudson Ri to the Atlantic.

      1840, Ohio created 2 navigable all-water links from Lake Erie to Ohio Ri.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      Robert Fulton: created the 1st commercial steamboat service that went up and down the Hudson Ri. (1807).

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      1st long distance rail line: B&O Rail Road Company (Maryland 1827, Baltimore and Ohio)

      Funnle agriculture products of trans-Appalachian West to an outlet on Chesapeake Bay.
      This idea spread to other states
      Gov. helped pay for the railroads but in 1837 the Panic caused the gov. to stop paying for a large portion of the railroads.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      NE and Midwest farmers were able to get goods to markets, but because the south was slow to being a part of the Transportation revolution they were unable to transport their products in the NE and England.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      Transportation revolution led to the communication revolution.

      1843 Samuel Morse, established the forty-mile telegraph line.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      Transportation and Communication revolution for farmers:

      Able to earn cash for their products usually only used for home.
      access to credit (eastern banks): able to expand enterprise and increased risk of failure by distant market force.
      1815-1850: explosion on agriculture technology.
      Cyrus McCormick: Horse-drawn mechanical reaper, for wheat harvesting.
      John Deere: stell-bladed plough, convert unbroken ground into fertile land.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      New York: economically most important city because of trade, from Great Lakes.

      St. Louis and Cincinnati: centers of trade because of steamboats.

      Chicago: railroad hub of western Great Lakes and Great Plains regions.

      New England lost advantage

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      Business corporation emerged.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      To protect liabilities of entrepreneurs in industrial endeavors, a corporate charter was allowed. (Incorporations)

      Many Americans didn’t support this new business organization.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      1832 textile co. made up 83% of American corporations value.

      led to the expansion, of the plantations in the South

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      19th-century states above the Mason-Dixie line were gradually abolishing slavery.

      Vermont: 1777 abolition of slavery in constitution
      Penn: 1780 freed children have a 25 yr indenture.
      NJ: 1804 last N. state to have gradual emancipation plans
      James Mars, indentured under Connecticut risked being put in jail for protesting against the indenture because he was stuck with his mother’s master for 25 yrs.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      Ways to freedom:

      Escape: dangerous
      Direct emancipation/manumission: rare

      Harboring a fugitive slave was a crime by 1793.

      Few Northern slaveholders emancipated their own slaves.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      Emancipation proceeded slowly.

      Pop. of free blacks increased.

      civil rights protests
      New England locales, could vote and send children to public schools (promoted edu. and developed print culture.
      property rights (owned land, business, churches, found societies)
      trial by jury
      voted

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      Free and unfree slaves increased in the north and south which caused division.

      Southern states especially continued to have slavery because of technological advances: Eli Whitney’s cotton gin and water-powered textile factories).

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 29th, 2016

      Cotton Boom led to the profits going toward loans to purchase more slaves.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      The commercial economy had its failures when it didn’t meet its promise of social mobility.

       

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Wage workers were immigrants and poor Americans who were paid low wages, worked long hours, and worked in dangerous work environments.

      class conflict

      employer vs employee

      employer: stable with political power

      employee: unstable and powerless

      1825: journeymen in Boston formed Carpenters’ Unions to protest about poor wages.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Middle-class managers/ civic leaders were in between the feud of rich and poor.

      Middle-class owners said they are in their position because of hard work and correct choices.

      Capitalists and laborers in America: no class only a ladder

      1825 one master carpenter group denounced their strike.

      1865 speech in Kalamazoo, Michigan, Abe Lincoln said that there is no class because the laborers will later turn into the owners.

       

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Poor families: Women and children had to help bring income to the house.

      11-12 yr old boys could take a job and earn a dollar per week.
      Joseph Tuckerman said there was a lack of discipline and regularity for the poor children.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Middle and upper class families: Children were able to receive an education to push them beyond the average person.

      1820 was the creation of the Warren Colburn of Boston school for mercantile and other pursuits.

      Boston School Committee created the English High School that would fit any child’s desire.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Women who were educated were able to live sophisticated, gentile lives.

      Elizabeth Davis left home in 1816 to attend school because her father believed it would create a foundation for her character and respectability.
      In the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville praised the independence granted to young women in the US.
      Women with an education could become school teachers.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Poor youths found it difficult to find respectable employment.

      when these children did find institutions they also found themselves indentured (House of Refuge in NY).

      Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents in NYC sent wards to place, like Sylvest Lusk’s farm in Enfield, Connecticut.

      taught boys how to trade and farm.
      taught girls how to be housewives.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Opportunities for children were based on their family’s class.

      Colonial American children took up thier parents’ chosen profession.

      Market Revolution children could postpone employment if their family didn’t need them to work.

      Romantic Childhood

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      women: domestic consumers

      men: economic production and political life

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Separate spheres displayed class bias.

      Middle- and upper-classes displayed their status by protecting their women from wage labor.
      lower-class women continued to contribute to the economy directly.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Cloth production took away the need for women at home to make it.

      However, this led to women purchasing cloth, making them consumers.

      Martha Ballard, from Maine, made cloth for her family, not for commercial markets. It was year-round and labor-intensive.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Women became skilled consumers by comparing values because they could buy cheap cloth and create clothing for their husband.

      Mrs. Peter Simon inspected 26 yards of Holland cloth to make sure it was worth the 130 pound price.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Women parlay skills into, business.

      paid work for neighbor.
      Women combine clothing production with management, of a boarding house.
      some slaves could be paid for a higher price.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      African American women were seen as less delicate than white women, so they are able to do agricultural labor.

      white women assisted in planting, harvesting, and processing agricultural projects.
      white southerners continued to make their own clothes and food.
      kept racial hierarchy and slavery which made them feel morally superior to the Northerners.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Married women were not seen as their own person. They were represented by their husband (which never changed over time).

      Women had no money to their name it was ALL owned by the husband.

      Divorce was only allowed in Massachusetts and Connecticut because it was seen as a civil contract and not a religious one.

      Marriage was a permanently binding contract.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Institutional to Companionate shift.

      Institutional marriage was mainly about what each partner could provide to help keep each other alive.

      Companionate marriage involved the emphasis on affection and attraction even though money was still essential.

       

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Success in family life for a middle-class man: marrying a woman with strong morals and religious beliefs and owning a home.

      Middle-class men duties: public sphere- create wealth, engage in commerce and politics.

      Middle-class women duties: private sphere- keep a good home, cautious of household expenses, raising children, and etc.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Irish, German, and Jewish immigrants wanted new lives and economic opportunities in American between 1820-1860.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      1820-40 the American economy pulled the Irish toward the NE cities where they performed unskilled work.

      Irishmen came alone and then sent money to their family or sent money so their family could obtain a ticket to come to America (known as chain migration).

      Irish Famine: exodus out of Ireland. 1.7 million Irish fled starvation and oppressive English policies between 1840-60.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Irish lived in the coastal cities with Germans, who used the ports as waypoints before living in a rural countryside.

      1.5 million German’s came to the US during the antebellum era.

      Some fled because of failed revolutions of 1848 but many fled because they wanted steadier economic opportunities.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Most germans were Catholics, but some were Jewish as well.

      Jewish immigrants came from SW Germany and parts of Poland and moved to the US through chain migrations.

      Jews found work in retail, commerce and artisanal occupations.

      Irish created churches and catholic schools.

      Jews created synagogues.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Anglo-Protestant Americans created an American Party called the “Know-Nothing Party” (Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia in the 1850s) who wanted to limit Euro. immigration and prevent Catholics from creating churches and institutions.

      Immigration declined after the 1855 Crimean War and improving economic conditions for Euros.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Industrial northern cities, Irish immigrants increased in size in the working class.

      However, to prevent the number from growing, workers formed trade unions to protect their economic power of their members by creating closed shops.

      Examples: Philadelphia’s Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers or Carpenters’ Union of Boston

      Unions did not become legally acceptable until 1842.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      1840s labor activists such as the New England Association of Farmers, Mechanics and Other Workingmen (NEA) created the ten-hour day movement.

      The time of leisure would give the men the ability to become more intellectual and improve morally.
      1835, city-wide strike in Boston that moved to Philadelphia.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      Textile operatives in Lowell, Massachusetts walked off their jobs in 1834-36.

      During the THM in the 1840s, women in the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association, that was led by Sarah Bagley, provided crucial support.

      FLRA desired for mental improvement like the THM.

      President Van Buren created the 10-hour day policy for laborers on fed. public works projects.

      New Hamp. passed a law in 1847, Penn. did so 1 year later.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on September 30th, 2016

      1842 Child labor = dominant issue

      child labor movements gained more middle-class support (especially from New England).

      Fall River parents (southern Massachusetts mill town) asked for a law to be passed that prohibited a certain age of a child to not work and prohibited that said child, from working a certain number of hours in a manufacturing establishment.

      Massachusetts passed a law.

      The 19th-century New England did so too.

      Public officials agreed that children between 9-12 shouldn’t work in dangerous areas while older kids (12-15) have to balance work, education, and leisure.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 7th, 2016

      regular citizens’ increase in influence on gov. scared the founding elites.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 7th, 2016

      Founding Elites (FE), believed that too much participation could stop the creation of a secure and united republican society.

      Benjamin Rush: Address to the People of the United States

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 8th, 2016

      Citizens voted
      Made public demonstrations
      delivered speeches at patriotic holiday
      petitioned Congress
      OPENLY criticized president
      free people shouldn’t be deferred by elected leaders

      democratic republic= people always sovereign

       

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Sectional conflict between the north, south and west states.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Virginia was extremely influential to the country.

      5/6 of the first presidents were from Virginia.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Slavery caused increased tensions between the northern and southern states.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      The Missouri Crisis was an example of the tension.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Missouri as a slave state threatened the northerners political power.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      James Tallmdge of New York proposed that Missouri was admitted as a state only if no new slaves could be brought in, and that slaves already born into that state are freed at the age of 25.

       

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Proposal

      accepted in the House
      opposed in the Senate

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Henry Clay of Kentucky: “the Great Compromiser”

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Klay and Thomas’ compromise had 3 parts.

      Missouri is a slave state
      Maine is a free state
      36-30 line of latitude- states above this line from the Lousiana Purchase = FREE. States south of the line = SLAVE.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      sectionalism tensions increased.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Missouri Crisis failed to settle the issue of slavery.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Andrew Jackson

      backcountry Kentucky duel winner (1806)
      Lawyer
      Slaveholder
      General
      7th President

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Jackson had a deep hatred for GB because of his wound and the loss of his mother and 2 brothers.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Jackson moved to Tennessee and worked as a lawyer.

      1796: US Rep.
      1797: seat in Senate
      1798: resigned

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Political connections = General

      “Old Hickory”

       

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Victories:

      Creek War: btw different factions of Muskogee Indians in Alabama
      Battle of Houseshoe Bend 1814
      Battle of New Orleans 1815 (occurred after peace treaty)

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Adams, Secretary of State and son of former President John Adams, used Jackson’s military successes in 1st Seminole War to make Spain accept Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819. 

      Florida now in the US.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Adams-Jackson friendship doesn’t last long after a “corrupt bargain” takes place in order for Adams to win Presidency in 1824.

      Nominees:

      Adams- Massachusetts
      Jackson- Tennessee
      Crawford- Georiga
      Clay- Kentucky

       

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      1828, Adams and Jackson square off again and Jackson wins!

      Adams supporters: accused Jackson of murder, and attacked his marriage

      Jackson supporters: accused Adams of elitism and claimed that while serving Russia as a diplomat he offered the emperor a prostitute.

       

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Reasons for Jackson’s victory:

      Old Hickory
      Represents ordinary white Americans (south and west)
      Went against wealthy and powerful elite.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Key issue during Jackson’s presidency: sectional dispute about tax policy.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Tariff of Abominations (1828): import tax that protected northern manufacturing interests by increasing prices on European goods.

      Southerners opposed: forced them to buy goods from the North’s manufacturers at high prices and Europeans increased tariffs on their goods which decreased foreign purchases of the South’s raw materials.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      1828: “South Carolina Exposition and Protest” the resolution to the Abomination tariff, nullification (John C. Calhoun).

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Calhoun’s essay was seen as a personal betrayal toward Jackson and led to a confrontation in 1832 at a commemoration for Thomas Jefferson.

      Martin Van Buren (NY political leader/ “the Little Magician”) became VP during Jackson’s second term.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Calhoun returned to SC where the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were nullified.

      If these tariffs came back into the state, SC would have to secede from the Union.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Jackson forced the tariff onto SC by the use of the military. Jackson did this by persuading Congress to pass a Force Bill.

      Jackson did support the idea of comprise.

      Henry Clay and Calhoun came up with a solution that lowered the tariff rates, and SC nullified the Force Bill.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Petticoat Affair:

      disagreement among elite women in DC
      disbanding of Jackson’s cabinet

       

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Jackson chose provincial politicians, one was his friend, John Henry Eaton.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Margaret O’Neale Timberlake was a widow of a navy officer, but 9 months after her late husband’s death, she was married to Eaton.

      Leading to rumors of Timberlake being a cheater etc.

      Women would not hang out with her because it would ruin their reputation.

      women held a strict code of feminity and sexual morality

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Jackson blamed his cabinet for the gossip going on.

      he later blamed the ambition of VP Calhoun for Floride Calhoun’s actions.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Jackson was angered because he had to go through the same scandal with his late wife Rachel.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      one of the most famous presidential meetings in American history, that was called together by Jackson, discussed women’s position as protectors of the nation’s values.

      4 members of the cabinet resigned including Eaton’s husband.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Jackson waged war against the Bank of the US.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      1st BUS charter expired (1811)

      2nd BUS charter began (1816)

      stabilize economy
      prevent the issuing of bank notes
      bring profit to stock holders

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Jackson was a skeptic and believed the bank caused the Panic of 1819; a severe depression.

      the bank lent money irresponsibly.
      hoarded gold to save itself at the expense of smaller banks.
      bank corrupted politicians by giving them financial favors.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Jackson vetoed the bank because of the following reasons:

      unconstitutional
      well-connected people get richer at everyone else’s expense
      protects British stockholders, but possibly doesn’t have the Americans interest at heart.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      1833 no more depositing federal funds in the 2nd BUS.

      Only did business with selected banks called pet banks, as critics would call them.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Opposition: Jackson gives wealth to the lazy people

      Supporters: Jackson kept a monied aristocracy from conquering the people.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      1st modern party in the US: Democrats (supporters of Jackson)

      Opponents: Whigs

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Jackson’s victory worsened the economic problems.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      1834-36: high cotton prices, domestic credit and infusion of species from Europe spurred a bomb in the economy.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      increase in state-charted banks

      paper banknotes per capita increased

      decreased interest rates for GB = increase in risky investments in the US

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      banks became careless about the amount of hard currency on hand to redeem banknotes.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      June 1836: Congress decided to increase the number of banks that received federal deposits.

      July 1836: Specie Circular was passed by the Treasury Department which required payment in hard currency for all federal purchases.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      late fall in 1836, Federal land sales decreased drastically.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      New York, May 4, 1837: panicked customers rushed to exchange their banknotes for currency.

      May 10th, 1837: NY banks were running out of currency and stopped redeeming notes, which led to banks across the nation doing the same.

      May 15th, 1837: largest crowd in Pennsylvania history outside of the Independence Hall in Philadelphia.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Panic of 1837 = depression

      1839-1843: capital helped by banks dropped 40%

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Effects

      200 banks closed
      cash and credit = scarce
      prices declined
      trade slowed
      8 states + territorial gov. defaulted on loans made by British banks to finance internal improvements.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 9th, 2016

      Whigs benefitted from the disaster of the Panic of 1837.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Whig party had grown out of the political coalition of John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay.

      National Repubs: concentrated in NE- anti-Jackson movement
      Enemies

      pro-slavery
      antislavery

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Henry Clay held meetings to sway anti-Jackson leaders from different backgrounds to unite; giving them the new Whig Party its monarchial name.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      1839: Whigs held their first national convention in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

       

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Clay was not nominated as the Whig candidate for, presidency in 1840, General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was.

      Harrison: known for defeating Shawnee warriors in NW before and during the War of 1812 (famously at the Battle of Tippecanoe).

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Tippecanoe and Tyler won the presidential election of 1840, but this was a disaster for the Whig’s.

      Tippecanoe’s longest inaugural speech in history then led to his death only 31 days in office.
      Tyler’s adopted policies that looked more like Jackson’s than a Whig’s.

      He vetoed the charters for a bank two and almost his entire cabinet resigned and the Whigs in Congress expelled his accidency from the party.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Freemasonry: originated in medieval Europe as a trade organization for stonemasons.

      18th century, it became a general secular fraternal order that proclaimed adherence to the ideals of Enlightenment.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      G. Washington, B. Franklin, A. Jackson, and H. Clay were all members of Freemasonry.

      Prince Hall found a separate branch of Freemasonry’s for African American men.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      1820s upstate NY anti-Masonic suspicion emerges.

      Cause: William Morgan’s probably murder when he announced plans to publish an expose called Illustrations of Masonry.
      The book was supposed to reveal secret rites

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Morgan’s story convinced people that Mansory was a bad influence in the republic.

      created a political movement that wasn’t happy about the economic and political change in NY and parts of New England.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      1827, anti-Masonic, committee met in NY and committed to not voting for anyone who belonged to Freemasons.

      1828, in LeRoy an Anti-Masonic Declaration of Independence was created for the Anti-Masonic Party.

       

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      1830 Anti-Masons held a national convention in Philadelphia.

      1832 the Anti-Masons joined the Whig Party.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Nativists feared that Catholic immigrants would bring religious violence with them to the US.

       

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Summer 1834 a mob, of angry Protestants, attacked a Catholic convent near Boston because of rumors about nuns holding women against their will.

      Rebecca Reed published a memoir about the abuses novices and students dealt with.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Protestants saw the Catholic faith as a superstition.

      deprived people of the ability to think for themselves
      enslaved them to a dictator
      preyed sexually on young women
      potential to overrun and conquer American political system.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      The increase of free men led to whites fearing that blacks would come vote.

      This led to the American democracy to make laws on racial discrimination.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      1839 all states limited black voting rights.

      1821: all white male taxpayers but the richest black men.

      1838: Pennsylvania prohibited black voting completely.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      James Forten, a free-born sailmaker that became a wealthy merchant and landowner.

      used his wealth to promote abolition of slavery
      undertook a lawsuit to protect his rights to vote but he lost.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      1830’s: race relations worsened

      almost 400,00 blacks lived in America
      S/W: Native Americans stopped white expansion

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Racial and ethnic resentment created the wave of riots.

      Philadelphia: thousands of white rioters torched an antislavery meeting house and attacked black churches and homes.
      Elijah Lovejoy was murdered as he defended his printing press.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Racial tensions influenced pop culture:

      Thomas Dartmouth Rice: Black face

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Some whites joined free black activists when protesting about inequality.

    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on October 10th, 2016

      Female Anti-Slavery Society: organized boycotts of consumer products like sugar that came from slave labor and sold them at antislavery fundraising fairs.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      19th century: 2nd Great Awakening = succession of religious revivals

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      2nd Great Awakening- in response to powerful intellectual and social currents.

      rival provided:

      moral order
      new sense of spiritual community

      There was an increase in church membership, new Christian denominations and social reform.

       

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Cane Ridge, Kentucky (August 1801).

      Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian preachers gave sermons telling the crowd to strive for salvation.

      women did the same.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Cane Ridge Revival caused more churches to informally give sermons.

      juxtaposed Congregationalist and Episcopalian churches
      Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, and Seventh-Day Adventist churches grew.
      W/C NY known as “Burned-Over District” (Charles Grandison Finney revivalist preacher and coined the term).

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      1850: Methodism most popular denomination

      1784: broke away from Church of England and created Methodist Episcopal Church

      Pushed west over the Alleghenies and into Ohio River Valley where they brought religion to those who had spiritual needs.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Calvinism was too pessimistic for many American Christians.

      (Radical revivalist preachers) Charles Grandison Finney appealed to worshippers’ hearts and emotions.
      Lyman Beecher appealed to younger generations (less orthodox approach to Calvinist doctrine).

      Spiritual egalitarianism: important transformation

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Spiritual egalitarianism + Methodists: lack of formal training allowed more people to be preachers and attracted more preachers who didn’t have a divinity degree.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      2nd GA exposed strains within Methodists and Baptist churches.

      Alexander Campbell and Barton Stone proposed a return or restoration of the New Testament Christianity.

       

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Joseph Smith

      Mormon founder
      Dreams about Jesus Christ saying not to join any other church b/c they’re wrong
      Book of Mormon early 1830
      Chruch of Christ
      Illinois (Nauvoo)
      Polygamy openly practices in 1852
      1844 Smith was murdered

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

       

      Shakers enforced celibacy

      John Humphrey Noyes = free love to Oneida community in upstate NY.

      Some preachers allowed women to openly express themselves. (Methodist and Baptist)

      Racial integration in religious gatherings was promoted.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Unitarianism: A group of ministers and their followers came to reject key aspects of “orthodox” Protestant belief including the divinity of Christ.

      founded Transcendental Club 1836: included ministers, literary intellectuals, author Henry David Thoreau, proto-feminist and literary critic Margaret Fuller, and educational reformer Elizabther Peabody.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Transcendentalists were united by their belief in a higher spiritual principle within each person that could be trusted to discover truth, guide moral action and inspire art.

      Soul, Spirit, Mind or Reason
      emphasized individualism, optimism, unity with nature and orientation toward future.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Ralph Waldo Emerson: “the eternal ONE”

      The American Scholar (1837) and Self-Reliance (1841): emphasized reliability of the individual soul

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Moralist were concerned about the number of people who didn’t attend church and who didn’t acccess scripture.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Similar problems on both sides of the Atlantic led to the collaborations from both sides to solve their problems.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      New material connections:

      improved transportation= steamboat, canals, and railroads.
      reduction of publication costs, Frederick Douglass’s autobio.

       

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      international connections continued even after networks changed because of the American Revolution.

      American and European missionary societies coordinated domestic and foreign evangelistic missions.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Anti-Slavery:

      Quakers + British reformers = ended slave trade and slavery in early 19th century.

      Thomas Clarkson, Daniel O’Connell, and Joseph Sturge, British abolitionists.
      Theodore Weld, Lucretia Mott, and William Garrison converted to antislavery by the demand for emancipation without delay.

      General Antislavery Convention of 1840

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      1840: London meeting that was created by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Staton for a national women’s suffrage convention, held in Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.

      foundation for Anglo-American Women’s Suffrage Movement.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Atlantic origins of reform = coming together with the British and attacking social problems while spreading the gospel of Chrisitianity.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      moral and social decline = Jeremiads

      Benevolent Empire: came from the 19th-century revivalism, networks of reform societies multiplied throughout the US btw 1815-1861, fusing religion + reform into a powerful force in American culture.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Benevolent empire = middle-class ministers dominate the leadership of antebellum reform societies.

      reform based on keeping respect for middle-class culture.
      middle-class women: increase in responsibility to maintain morals in the home and community.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Charles Grandison Finney: Perfectionism- live free of sin

      Disinterested benevolence

       

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Evangelical reformers: home/foreign missions or Bible/tract societies

      Sabbatarians: end non-religious activity on Sabbath

      Moral reform societies: end prostitution and redeem fallen women

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      overlap of these groups created the empire of benevolence, especially during Anniversary Week.

      A. week: major reform groups come together to create schedules of meetings in NY or Boston to allow people to come to multiple meaning in one trip.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 13th, 2016

      Temperance crusade most successful.

      Curb consumption of alcohol which was supported by the middle class which was a significant social issue after the American Revolution by 1820s.
      Lyman Beecher
      Hard liquor = staple beverage in many lower- and middle-class households.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      1826: evangelical ministers organized American Temperance Society.

      supported lectures
      produced temperance lit.
      organized revivals

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      Temperance was important to middle-class women because of the alcohol use led to men who abused, abandoned, or neglected family obligations.

      temperance threatened lower-class workers (Irish Catholics).
      1830s: drank half of what they drank in the 1820s.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      British and Foreign Bible Society formed in 1804 to spread Christian doctrine to the British working class.

      American Bible Society and American Tract Society gave out bibles by the use of steam-powered printing press.

      Boston, NY, and Philadelphia, middle-class women established groups specifically to canvass neighborhoods and bring the gospel to lower-class “wards.”

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      evangelicals worked to make sure the word of God spread to those in the new American frontier.

      American Bible Society gave out bibles and American Home Missionary Society gave financial assistance to frontier congregations who had a hard time achieving self-sufficiency.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      Difficulties came when the benevolent empire tried to take on political issues like Indian removal.

      When Andrew Jackson was President the removal of Natives was emphasized and in the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was opposed by Indians and the benevolent empire that saw the natives as civilized.
      Jeremiah Evarts or William Penn = essay on opposing removal

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      Indian removal = Trail of Tears

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      Anti-removal activism led to the entry of American women into political discourse.

      First major petition by American women focused on opposing the removal by Catharine Beecher.
      Unsuccessful but it paved the way for other women to delve into political activism for abolitionism and women’s rights.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      reformers saw slavery as the most God-defying of all sins.

      1830s: W. Garrison, (Congregational revivalists) Arthur, Lewis Tappan, Theodore Weld, (radical Quakers) Lucretia Mott, and John Whittier pushed the idea of immediate emancipation.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      Garrison:

      1820s – fought slavery
      1831 – est. newspaper The Liberator promoted immediate emancipation and black citizenship
      1833 – American Antislavery Society

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      Abolitionists:

      In the North: creation of antislavery societies
      women and men of all colors were encouraged to work together in schools, churches, and associations created to combat color phobia.
      used US postal service in 1835 to overwhelm southern slaveholder’s with calls to emancipate their slaves.
      1836: Great Petition Campaign

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      Lovejoy: News editor and Abolitionist who was defending his printing press but was killed by a mob of people who opposed the abolitionists like Lovejoy.

      Gag rule was passed in 1836 by congress (Whigs and Democrats).

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      Began to splinter because women were elevated and women’s suffrage was endorsed.

      1840 Abby Kelly.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      F. Douglass:

      escaped slavery
      abolitionist
      gifted orator
      1845: autobiography
      1845: traveled to GB to meet Thomas Clarkson
      British and Irish antislavery support

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      Fugitive Slave Act of 1850: penalized officials who failed to arrest runaways and private citizens who tried to help them.

      fear that Kansas would be a slave state when added.
      John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry = slavery increasing sectionalism
      perfectionism = no more

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      2nd Great Awakening + New edu. for women = women being in the public eye

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      Women were seen as pure, domestic and submissive = “Cult of True Womanhood”

      the various reforms related to women’s roles as guardians of moral virtue, but there were limitations.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      female education:

      intellectual equality with men
      most graduates found their own schools, spread a more academic women’s edu. around the country.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      A. Grimke and C. Staton began their activism by fighting the injustices of slavery

      1830s: Boston, NY and Philadelphia – antislavery mission.

       

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      Sarah and Angelina Grimke:

      Born in Charleston, SC
      shared experiences of slavery on Northern, lecture tour (antislavery movement).
      fought for women’s rights to fight for rights of slave.

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      World Antislavery Convention in London: women were unable to vote or sit which led to Mott and Elizabeth Stanton to create the Seneca Falls Convention during 1848 in NY.

       

    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on October 14th, 2016

      Staton:

      wrote Declaration of Sentiments for Seneca Falls Convention
      15 grievances and 11 resolutions to promote women’s access to civil rights
      married women’s rights to property, access to professions, and the right to vote.
      68 women and 32 men signed the DOS.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 18th, 2016

      Nov. 1785: Liverpool firm of Peel, Yates, and Co. : 1st of 7 bales of cotton in Euro.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 18th, 2016

      Gossypium bardaense or Petit Gulf near Rodney, Mississippi, in 1820 changed the global cotton markets.

      slid through the cotton gin
      produced more cotton
      came when land in the SE was available for people with money.

      During the Indian Removal Act of 1830, land that was west of the Mississippi River was being sold to anyone for extremely low costs.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 18th, 2016

      The area was known as the Cotton Belt

      Joseph Holt Ingraham, writer/traveler from Maine = “mania.”
      William Henry Sparks = “a new El Dorado”
      Banks in NYC, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and London offered credit to anyone who wanted land in the sw.
      Speculation.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 18th, 2016

      End of 1830s: Petit Gulf cotton was perfected, distributed, and planted throughout the region.

      advances in steam power and water travel.
      cotton = primary crop for nation.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 18th, 2016

      1800: SC primary cotton producer.

      1835: 5 main cotton growing states produced more than 500 million pounds of Petit Gulf. = SC, GA, AL, MS and La

      55% US export market

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 18th, 2016

      With the rise of cotton came the decline of tobacco.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 18th, 2016

      Pros: cotton was the average man’s commodity, US could expand west with this crop and Thomas Jefferson’s republic.

      Cons: Indian Removal, federal auctions, available credit, and immediate profit = split the nation.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 18th, 2016

      Slavery was amplified with the existence of cotton that created the Cotton Kingdom.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Slavery existed in the south since 1619 (the dutch + jamestown).

      Slavery increased in the south as farmers grew more crops, entered the international trade market and expanded lands.

       

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      1790-1810: South region went from 4 states to 6 states (GA, Virginia, N/SC, Kentucky, and Tennessee) + 3 territories (Mississippi, Louisiana, and Orleans).

      Free pop doubled in the South

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Cotton Belt = Black Belt

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Cotton Revolution effects:

      Slaves and Land = key to this time period

       

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Slaves were the backbones of the Southern cotton economy: highest and most important expense

      prices were based on skin color, sex, age, and location

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Prices for slaves increased 1840’s – 50’s

      plow boys = under 18: $600
      prime field hands = merchants and traders: $1600

       

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Produce cotton – Make money – Buy Slaves (repeat)

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Cotton Revolution = capitalism, panic, stress, and competition.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Slaves had a shared sense of suffering that was communicated in slave markets of the urban South.

      they helped each other ease their loads by breaking a hoe, running a wagon off of the road, causing delay, or pregnancy.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      There was a fear of slave rebellion

      Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Justification for slavery: Whites believed slavery brought order to African’s and African American’s because without slavery they would become violent, aimless, and uncontrollable.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Productivity increased but on the backs of slaves:

      Mississippi: 4-5 bales per day -> 8-10 bales per day
      Buena Vista Plantation in Tensas Parish, Louisiana: 300-500 lbs per hand -> 1700-2100 lbs per hand

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Cities served as local ports.

      New Orleans: entered union in 1812 and home to over 27,000 ppl. 1820= 2nd largest city in the south
      Baltimore had more than 62,000 people in 1820.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Market located in nearest town or city.

      1st decade of the 19th century American involvement in international trade was largely confined to ports in NY, Boston, Philadelphia and Baltimore.
      1807: US imports outnumbered exports by nearly $100 million.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Mississippi River: promised change in trade, transportation, and commerce but there wasn’t any technology that could handle the bends and fights against its current.

      1820-30s smalls ships could sail to New Orleans from Memphis and St. Louis but the issue was getting back.

       

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      January 1812: 371-ton ship called the New Orleans that sailed from New Orleans to Pennsylvania.

      1st steamboat to navigate the internal waterways of NA continent from one end to the other.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      New Orleans led to the creation of more steamboats that had the same function.

      1860: 3,500 steamboats focused on internal trade.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Waterways connected rural and urban areas to create effective commerce and trade.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      international trade and cotton production increase = increase in population.

      Largest increase: St. Louis

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Southern cities grew = attracted people uninterested in rural life.

      bought rural goods to a market desperate for raw materials.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Urbanization = creation of middle class

      this middle class thrived in the active, feverish rush of port city life.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Middle class:

      Silk, cotton, and bright colors were in style especially in coastal cities: New Orleans and Charleston
      Came together in groups that gave aid to the less fortunate
      Shut people out and kept the inner-circle

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      South was the most diverse in the US.

      4 million enslaved people by 1860 (more than 45% of the population).
      Slaves created codes, religious congregations, social aid organizations, and family networks.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Family brought slaves together when it was fairly easy to be apart because of the environment they were in.

      family units allowed slaves to maintain religious beliefs, ancient ancestral traditions, and names passed down.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Families didn’t last long

      polygamous marriages: maintained cultural traditions; language, religious, name practices, and bodily scarring. – SC and Louisiana
      marriage connected slaves to their pasts
      start of civil war: 2/3 slaves were members of nuclear households

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Slaves who had families before making an arrival to the US were under threat of sale downriver; near constant flow of slave laborers down the Mississippi Ri. to cotton belt in SW.

      Cotton Revolution: 1/5-1/3 of slave marriages were broken up through, sale.
      Slaveholders used marriage against the slaves, to counteract any disobedience.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Death of the slaveholder could separate a married couple.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Women = more vulnerable to different shifts that come with slavery.

      Separation from family
      Working when pregnant
      Sexual violence
      rape
      Harriet Jacobs NC, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Rape was only seen with 2 white people or a black man and a white woman.

      Racist pseudo-scientists believed that the sexual organs aren’t compatible.

      Rape wasn’t considered a crime toward enslaved women.

      example: 19-year-old Celia and Callaway County

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      White and free black women had no rights to vote, own property or represent themselves.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Southern ministers said that God himself selected Africans for bondage.

      Protestantism spread rapidly among African Americans.
      Biracial congregations

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      missionaries work became a crucial element of Christian expansion.

      some learned indigenous languages
      some prevented indigenous children from speaking, native language.
      1838 preached a proslavery theology.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Slaves received Christian instruction from white preachers or masters who stressed the importance of slaves.

      Anti-literacy ensured slaves would be unable to read the bible
      William Wells Brown

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      slaves practiced their own form of Christianity.

      Nat Turner: spirits visited him- considered himself a prophet

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      August 22nd, 1831: Nat Turners Southampton County, Virginia, and 6 others = slave rebellion.

      57 white men, women, and children were killed.

       

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Evangelical religion: what it means to be a southern woman or man

      man: masculinity

      women: sexual virtue

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Dueling: 2 men who couldn’t settle a dispute would exchange pistol shots to prove equal honor.

      President A. Jackson
      VP Aaron Burr
      US Senator H. Clay
      US Senator T.H Benton

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Lower class fighting/victory: fistfights and shootouts/maiming opponent

      Upper class: risking life

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Wealthier people weren’t prosecuted for dueling even though it was against the law, while the lower-class southerners were found guilty more often.

    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on October 19th, 2016

      Women received honor by managing the household and for those women on a plantation, honor would come from managing a large bureaucracy of potentially rebellious slaves.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      iron ore mining spurred in Wisconsin
      increase in German and Scandinavian immigrants in Upper Mississippi.
      Rocky mts. desirable to fur traders.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      Indians controlled much of the land east of the Mississippi ri.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      Dispossession of American Indians was because of manifest destiny and racism.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      19th century: Spain encouraged southern slave owners to come to Florida in order to expand.
      1812: A large group of Georgia slave owners raided Fernandina and raidedSpanish and British plantations along with the St. Johns River.
      July 27th, 1816 US army regulars attacked the Negro fort and killed 270 blacks.
      invasion on FL by Jackson = 1st Seminole War

       

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      Creek and Seminole Indians occupied Apalachicola River, wet prairies and hammock islands of central Florida.

      Spain agreed to transfer territory to the US for $5 million dollars and more as part of the Adams-Onis Treaty.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      Carolinas + GA + VA entered FL.

      Free blacks and escaped slaves occupied the Seminole district which was one major cause of the 3 Seminole Wars, btw 1817-1858.
      General Thomas Sidney Jesup, US commander : 2nd Seminole War = negro, not an Indian war.
      1845 Florida was a state.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      Jackson took the most action in removing Indians.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      Indian Removal Act passed in 1830.

      Believed in paternalism belief: Indians being under control would give them more chances to be civilized.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      Fed. Gov. pressured Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Cherokee nations to sign treaties and surrender land.

      Cherokee Nation’s attempted to sue the state of GA to protect their lands.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      Beginning of 1826: GA wanted the Cherokee out because Georgians wanted more land.

      GA grew impatient and abolished state agreements with Cherokee.

      Jackson asked the Indians to move west

      1829, The discovery of gold in GA pushed this want for Indians to move west more.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      Beginning in 1828: Cherokee defended themselves by citing treaties signed with the US that ensured the Cherokee nation land and independence.

      Worcester v GA 1832: ruled GA laws didn’t apply w/i Cherokee territory.
      GA ignored Supreme Court.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      Jackson admin. refused any deal that involved anything less than complete removals of Cherokee.

      Increased tension

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      1835 Cherokee signed the Treaty of New Echota: ceded lands in GA for 5 million dollars.

      signed by John Ridge
      John Ross pointed out US gov. hypocrisy.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      President Martin van Buren (1838) used the New Echota Treaty to forcibly remove those Cherokee not obeying the Treaty’s cession of territory.

      Trail of Tears

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 25th, 2016

      Odawa and Ojibwe communities in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota = RESISTED REMOVAL

      Purchased land independently
      Black Hawk War (1812) removal of Sauk to Kansas (example of removal in north).

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      1830s Comanche launched raids into N. Mexico which ended an unprofitable but peaceful diplomatic relationship.

      New trading relationship with Anglo-American traders in Texas
      Comanche + Comancheria peaked in power.
      controlled commodities; captives, livestock, and trade goods
      US- Mexican War began in 1846

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Great Basin region was integrated with the commercial trading network of the west.

      Mexicans + anglo-a’s entered the region
      increase in violence: Paiute and W. Shoshone as traders, settlers , and Mormon religious refugees, aided by US officials and soldiers, committed daily acts of violence.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Thomas L. McKenney = Civilization Policy

      American Indians = to whites

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Congress rejected McKenney;s plan but passed the Civilization Fund Act in 1819.

      $10,000 annual annuity that went toward societies that funded missionaries to create schools for Indian tribes.
      allowed the gov. to take away land to create schools.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      1841: Cherokee Nation opened a public school system.

      1843: included 18 more school
      1852: 21 schools and a national enrollment of 1,100 pupils

       

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Those who migrated west went with families and lived along navigable rivers.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Small farming was boosted because of the increase in population in the east which led to increase in competition.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Because men needed wives that would help them create a home in the west there was more opportunity for women.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      conflict: the government should help the migrants by paying for infrastructure development vs. the migration is private therefore the government isn’t needed.

      federal aid was essential at the end

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      The panic of 1819 caused more debt and the west was a way to get away from the debt.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      New roads and canals increased migration and settlement.

      Canals in the East
      Roads in the West

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Steamboats grew quickly: 1810s -1820s

      Erie Canal: Great Lakes + NYC done in 1825
      helped NY outpace east coast rivals.
      NY center for commercial import and export in US.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Railroads encouraged rapid growth of towns and cities.

      Baltimore and Ohio line hoped to link mid-Atlantic cities
      promised to move commerce faster

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      1821: Mexico gained independence from Spain.

      wanted to attracted people from the N.
      immigrants mainly from the south.
      1829: slavery outlawed but immigrants had to convert to Catholicism.
      1830: no more immigrants

       

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      1834 in Texas: Centralists vs Federalists

      General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (centralists) who repudiates federalist Constitution of 1824.
      Texians opposed and met in November
      Texas declared independence on March 2, 1836

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      At Alamo and Goliad, SA crushed small rebel forces and massacred 100’s of prisoners.

      Mexican army pursued retreating Texian army deep into E. Texas spurring a mass panic evacuation. RUNAWAY SCAPE

      Surprise attack on SA led by Sam Houston on April 21st, 1836. The battle of San Jacinto lasted 18 mins.

      SA was captured and signed the Treaty of Velasco on May 14th, 1836. W/d army from Texas and acknowledged their independence.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Democrat James K. Polk won the election of 1844, and promised westward expansion, with eyes on Texas, Orgon, and Cali.

      March 3rd, 1845 he made an official offer
      July 4th, Texas was the 28th state.

      Side note: John Tyler (expelled from Whig Party) brought up bringing Texas in as a new state. This caused tension because people worried if Texas would be a slave or free state.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Mexico and Texas fought over the Nueces strip.

      The NS was controlled by independent American Indian tribes.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Nov. 1845: President Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico City to try to purchase the NS, parts of New Mexico, and Cali.

      Mexican City refused
      Polk sent 4,000 troops under General Zachary Taylor to Corpus Christi, Texas
      1846: he sent the troops to the territory to show force would push lands of Cali onto the bargaining table too.
      Wasn’t taken well = 11 killed US soldiers.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Declaration of War on May 13, but John Q Adams and John C. Calhoun opposed it.

      50,000 volunteer soldiers came because of promises of adventure and conquest abroad.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Fall 1846 US Army invaded Mexico

      Disease killed 7x’s as many soldiers as combat.
      conflict
      violence
      soldiers left in huge numbers
      Feb. 2nd, 1848 signing of Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Santa Fe trade = land grants that brought numerous settlers to texas.

      Gadsden Purchase of 1854 added to American gains north of Mexico.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      1848: there were 20,000 Americans living west of the Rockies, with about 3/4 of that number in Oregon.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      California attracted so many people west because of GOLD.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Jan. 24th, 1848 James W. Marshall (contractor) hired John Sutter discovered gold on Sutter’s sawmill land in Sacramento Valley.

      need for a transcontinental railroad to provide service for passengers and goods from the Midwest to the east coast.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Diversity = Conflict

      1850s: 1/5 of mining pop. was Chinese and Mexican immigrants.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Goal for the US government:

      keeping European countries out of affairs in the western hemisphere.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      President James Monroe

      Secretary of State John Q. Adams: helped create the Monroe Doctrine

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Reasons for the Monroe Doctrine:

      Russians in the NW
      Brits in Canada
      Spanish in S. America
      Brits in Carribean

      (speech) US House Reps on July 4, 1821, acknowledged the need for a foreign policy that protected and encouraged the nation to grow.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Adams main concern was the ability of the US to compete commercially with Brits in Latin America and the Caribbean.

      Goals:

      Expansion of economy
      protection from foreign pressures

       

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Expansion of slavery in the Caribbean was supported by northerners and southerners.

      Filibustering: privately financed schemes of different degrees where people occupied foreign territory without the US gov. approval.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Filibustering in Cuba

      Fears:

      abolitionists
      racialized revolution in Cuba

      These energized the movement to annex Cuba

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      Annexation of Cuba (ATTEMPTS) by Narciso Lopez (Cuban dissident) never succeeded.

    • Comment on 12. Manifest Destiny on October 26th, 2016

      William Walker:

      seized parts of Baja peninsula in Mexico
      took control and est. a slaving regime in Nicaragua.
      executed in Honduras

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 3rd, 2016

      1860: 4 way presidency race.

      Democratic party divided

      Senator Douglas (Northern demos. liked him): pro-slavery
      Baltimore convention got him on the ballot with VP John C Breckinridge (Kentucky).

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 3rd, 2016

      Republicans weren’t unified.

      May 1860 consensus at a convention for the party’s nominees telling them they need to carry all free states.

      Ny senator William Seward (passed over- pro-immigration was a problem for Penn. and NJ)
      A. Lincoln Illinois (selected on 3rd ballot).
      TN, John Bell, headed the Constitutional Union Party.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 3rd, 2016

      A. Lincoln was in the lead during the presidential race for republicans.

      First runner-up: Breckinridge
      Bell
      Douglas

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 3rd, 2016

      Election of Lincoln was a threat to slavery so southern states seceded from the union.

      Dec. 20, 1860, SC
      Jan. 9, 1861, MS
      Jan. 10, 1861, FL
      Jan. 11, AL
      Jan 19, GA
      Jan 26, LA
      Feb 1, TX

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 3rd, 2016

      Confederacy was created.

      Alexander Stephens cornerstone speech

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 3rd, 2016

      Unionist southerners went against the Confederacy because slavery was weakest there.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 3rd, 2016

      President James Buchanan did not try to change anything.

      Crittenden’s Compromise was proposed by Senator Crittenden from the Committee of Thirteen. It was a fail.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 3rd, 2016

      7 seceding states met in Montgomery, AL on Feb. 4th to organize a new nation. (Unionists)

      spring 1861, NC and TM had not held secession conventions while voters in VA, Missouri, and Arkansas initially voted down secession.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      Lincoln said the secession was legally void.

      military force was used to keep possession over seceded states.
      Fort Sumter Charleston SC in April 1861.
      Hostilities erupted on April 12, 1861, when Confederate Brigadier General PGT Beauregard fired on Fort Sumter.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      11 states renounced allegiance to the US.

      SLAVERY

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      Union adopted Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan to suppress rebellion.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      Lincoln feared losing the boarding states because that loss would lead to a decrease in resources and threaten the capital in Washington.

      Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky remained loyal.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      war would have disrupted the commercial and financial markets abroad, because of the lack of cotton produced.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      May 1861 General Benjamin F. Butler accepted fugitive slaves who came to Fortress Monroe in Virginia.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      The Union saw slaves as a helpful asset to them because the slaves could tell them where the Confederate troops are.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      When the Confederates won at the Battle of Bull Run (Virginia), Lincoln put Major General George B. McClellan to, commander of Amry of the Potomac.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      Repubs passed the whig economic package (Homestead Act, Land-Grant College, and Pacific Railroad Act.

      moves toward nationally controlled currency (greenback)
      Creation of banks with national characteristics.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      Peace Democrats vs War Democrats and Republicans

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      Soldiers lived by routine and to prevent boredom most soldiers wrote a lot.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      Social commentators thought that soldiers would be indecent because of the habits they have picked up away from home.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      Confederate and Union soldiers traded goods because it wasn’t uncommon for each side to run out of supplies.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      John Brown’s Body

      Union: praising John Brown’s actions at Harper’s Ferry

      Confed: Vilify Brown

       

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      George McClellan’s “Peninsular Campaign” was a failure because of his over cautiousness and Robert E. Lee.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      Feb. 1862, Ulysses Grant captured Confederate Forts Henry and Donelson along the TN Ri.

      one of the deadliest clashes happened on the TN ri. at Battle Shiloh on April 6-7, 1862. (Union victory)

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      Spring of 1862 two ironclad warships fought to duel at Hampton Rds., VA.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      April 1862: 1st Confiscation Act – slavery abolished in District of Columbia.

      July 1862: 2nd Confiscation Act – emancipated slaves under Union control

      August 1862: first iteration of the emancipation proclamation.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      Emancipation Proclamation occurred in fall of 1862 along Antietam creek in ML.

      Sept. 17, 1862, McClellan and Lee’s forces collided at the Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg.

      first major battle of Civil War

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 10th, 2016

      Confeds lost the Battle of Antietam.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      1862: Massachusetts abolitionist Thomas Wentworth Higginson’s 1st SC Vols. (1st regi. of black soldiers).

      Jan. 1st, 1863 Proclamation

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      James Henry Gooding (black corporal 54th Massachu. Vol) asked Lincoln why the vols were paid less (Sept. 1863).

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      15 black soldiers received the Medal of Honor

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      Confederate slaves:

      forced labor
      contradictory loyalties
      concerned for their safety
      camp servants (property)

      March 1865 a law was passed that allowed the enlistment of black soldiers (Richmond hospital worker).

      Chancellorsville, VA btw April 30 and May 6, 1863 = Confed. Victory and wounding of Stonewall Jackson

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      Lee invaded Penn. in 1863

      July 1-3 Gettysburg (bloodiest battle of war) where lee retreated from Penn.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      1862: Gibraltar of the West

      Fall of Vicksburg = split confederacy

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      NY Draft riots in July 1863: whites fears that blacks would take away their jobs

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      To ensure the legal end of slavery Repubs. drafted the 13th amendment.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      William Sherman: March to the Sea in fall of 1864 arrived in Savannah, (1865) SC, captured Charleston.

      Lee surrendered Army of N. VA to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April, 9th, 1865.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      Lincoln crushed McClellan in both the popular and electoral vote.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      November 8, 1864 (Lincoln vs McClellan) needed 117 electoral votes out of 223

      Lincoln won because of support from William T. Sherman’s capture of Atlanta on Sept. 2, 1864, Union soldiers, and radical Repubs.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      1860: W. VA, NV, and Kansas added as states

      Lincoln and VP Andrew Johnson (TN)

      McClellan (war democrat) and VP George H. Pendleton (Ohio — Peace Democrat)

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      Widows increased because of the Civil war but they weren’t able to be the ideal widow with so much to do especially while either being pregnant or tending to an infant.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      The Good Death changed during the Civil War

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      Sally Randle Perry “Now I’m a widow. Ah! Little the world think of the agony it contains!” This quotation comes from her diary she wrote after her husband’s death in Sharpsburg.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      1830s: Nitrous Oxide, Ether, Chloroform and Opium ease pain for amputation.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      1862 William Alexander Hammon was appointed as Surgeon General for the US to prevent overdosing and ensure ample supplies.

      surgeons ignored labels and created their own concoctions

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      Northern hospitals were better because of women like Dorothea Dix who was a Union’s Superintendent for Army Nurses.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      Civil war medicine was created to cure people instead of preventing the disease.

      soldiers created home remedies that only made their disease(s) worse.
      poor hygiene
      poor immune system

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      refer to paragraph 73.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      Civil War soldiers came from rural areas where less exposure to diseases, caused these soldiers to have low immunity.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      Refer to paragraph 73…

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      North = more unity

      Women had more leadership roles in sanitary fairs

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      1862: confed. congress passed its first conscription act; males 18-35 were required to participate in military services (extended to 45).

      1863: food shortages = bread riots (led by women) – Richmond, VA and Agusta, Macon, and Columbus, GA.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      Rose O’Neal Greenhow (DC) traveled and gave information to her Confed. contact.

      Allan Pinkerton placed her in Old Capitol Prison
      Released: returned to Euro. to bring support for confed.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      Elizabeth “Crazy Bet” Van Lew (Richmond, VA): sacrificed her social standing for the Union.

      spied on confederacy
      Ulysses placed a special guard on her
      acted as a nurse to the Union prisoners in Libby Prison

       

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      1864: hard war

      Grant’s success at Vicksburg and Chattanooga, TN (Nov. 1863) and Meade’s failure led Lincoln to promote Grant as general-in-chief of Union Army in 1864 (early).
      Grant led the Union to the bloodiest battles: Battle of Cold Harbor and the siege of Petersburg. June 1864: Grant and army were trying to cut off confed. supplies from Richmond.
      William Tecumseh Sherman went through central TN and N. GA and captured vital rail hub of Atlanta in September 1864.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on November 11th, 2016

      Crittenden’s Compromise: protection on the institution of slavery through constitutional amendments.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Reconstruction began when the war ended.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Emancipation Proclamation

      freed slaves in areas of rebellion
      700,000 in bondage

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Jan. 31st, 1865 – 13th amendment

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      April 14th, 1865 Lincoln was assassinated in John Wilkes Booth, “Our American Cousin.”

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Johnson took over in April of 1865, where he pardoned the south for participating in the rebellion but he did not pardon those who owned more than $20,000 in property.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Southern governments still implemented antebellum power relationships.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      black codes

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Thaddeus Stevens: racial equality

      Civil Rights Act of 1866: first attempt to constitutionally define all American-born residents as citizens with fundamental rights.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      14th amendment: ensured that state laws could not deny due process or discriminate against groups of people.

      approved on June 13th, 1866.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Johnson opposed the 14th amend. and vetoed the Civil Rights Act.

      Repubs. overrode the veto in 1867 and passed 2 reconstruction acts and divided the south into 5 milit. districts.
      14th amend. was ratified on July 9th, 1868.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      1868 General Ulysses S. Grant won presidency because of black voters.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      1860 only 5 states allows African-Americans to vote

      1867 African-Americans are in positions of power

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Black men voted in and  served as delegates to the state constitutional conventions in 1868.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      There was also a creation of public school systems in the south during this reconstruction.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      800 black men served as state legislators around the south with blacks making up a majority in the SC HR.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Free blacks in SC, VA, and La were wealthy and educated.

      A. Dubclet of La, and W. Breedlove of Va., owned slaved before the civil war, while people like James D. Porter from Ga (taught slaves how to read).

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      General William T. Sherman issued Special Field Order No. 15 where GA and SC were set aside for freedpeople, but this did not pan out.

      1866 land that ex-Confederates had left behind was given to the freedpeople.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Freedmen Bureau said just kidding this idea about giving land isn’t going to work so just be a slave again.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Freedpeople wanted freedom to control their families.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      emphasis on education

      classroom size: 50

      age: 3-80

       

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      recreated religious worlds based on their desires socially and spiritually.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Baptist became the fastest growing post-emancipation denomination, where they carried on the struggle for black political participation.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      North and South tensions about how to run worship

      North: orderly

      South: less formal

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Nannie Helen Burroughs and Virginia Broughton were leaders who fought against sexual violence from white men.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      Black churches gave space for conflict over gender roles, cultural values, practices, norms, and politics.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 29th, 2016

      With the ex-slaves gaining rights with the help of the Loyal League (ran by women) it was time for women to gain rights. Elizabeth Cady Staton wanted “equal rights for all” and in 1866 the National Women’s Rights Convention merged with the American Antislavery Society to create the AERA.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Division in 1837 because as Stanton, Susan B. Anthony and AERA were advocating for blacks and women suffrage, the AERA took advantage of their opportunity and distanced themselves from the women’s suffrage piece.

      Anthony and Stanton teamed up with white supremacists who believed in women’s rights.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      After 15th amendment “sex” was ignored, AERA dissolved, Stanton and Anthony created the National Woman Suffrage Association.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      1868-1872 700 women registered to vote.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Women’s suffrage supporters: mainly located in the north

      white southern women: did the man’s job

      black women: embraced freedoms

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Ladies Memorial Association: women that memorialized their husband and praised their husband through nationalist speeches and memorials.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Black women wanted more control over their labor.

      Gertrude Clanton

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Apprenticeships were offered to place African American children in unpaid labor positions but, African American women opposed.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      May 1, 1865 (aa) in Charleston created the precursor to Memorial Day by mourning the Union dead buried on a race track.

       

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Violence was used to make blacks work and follow antebellum pd. rules.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Types of violence:

      riots against black political authority

      Most notable: Memphis and New Orleans in 1866

      interpersonal fights
      organized vigilante groups

       

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Whites participated in hate crimes against blacks for minor disputes with no punishment.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Vigilante groups or Nightriders or Bushwhackers

      harassed black candidates, office holders, scared voters from the polls and frightened freed people who wanted to buy land.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      KKK organized in 1866 in Pulaski, TN and had spread to every state of the former Confederacy by 1868.
      Panola County, MS, between August 1870 and December 1872, 24 Klan-style murders
      violence aimed at uppity blacks who had tried to buy land or dared to be insolent and Republicans

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Enforcement Acts passed btw 1870-71: it was a crime to deprive aa of civil rights

      it was rebellious if a violent klan act was cast on freed people.
      Troops could be involved to protect the freed people
      1876: home rule

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      A town established in 1887: Mound Bayou, MS  owned by aa’s.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Northerners could buy from a variety of areas.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      From 1861 and on the South had a difficult time, financially, because they could not build back up to the position they were in without slaves and trade with Europe.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      1862: 1st national income tax

      1861: greenbacks

      Post war in the south: planters broke up large farms into smaller plots to single families for a portion of the crop = sharecropping.

       

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Freedom empowered aa’s but whites in the south still got away with discriminatory acts of violence toward blacks.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      White-capping: poor whites in a mob that would scare blacks away from jobs.

      some blacks were unable to buy their own land so they sharecropped.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Morrill Land Grant created colleges: University of California, Illinois, and Wisconsin

      With the creation of the National Banking System and the greenbacks, it helped accelerate trade and exchange

       

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      1868-77 interest in reconstruction declined

      The largest threats to republicans were violence and intimidation by white conservatives.

      The Presidential election of 1876: Repub. Rutherford B. Hayes won in exchange for w/d fed. troops.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      New Departure Democrats gained momentum. They focused on:

      business
      economics
      political corruption
      trade

      They won over the white democrats by saying that the government will be run by locals.

      ended reconstruction in TN, VA, and GA

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      September 1873: Jay Cooke and Co. declared bankruptcy = Depression of 1873

      This economic turmoil allowed Democrats to take over the House of Reps. after the election of 1874.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      (1876) Grant admin. was helpless and not much use.

      (1875) Demos. in MS created the MS Plan which was violence that would suppress black voters. Republicans did not intervene.

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      Hayes (R) vs Tilden (D)

      There was fraud found with the votes in 3 states: La, SC, and FL. A special electoral commission voted in favor of Hayes (8 for Hayes, and 7 for Tilden).

    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on November 30th, 2016

      There was a lot of bickering about the results of the election and the Republicans were in fear of another sectional crisis that they reached out to the Democrats.

      Compromise of 1877: Democrats accept the loss if the troops leave the south. (It was accepted)

       

    • Comment on 01. The New World on September 9th, 2016

      Salinan people = bald eagle story

      Lenape people = Sky woman

      Choctaw = Mother Mound

      Nahua = 7 caves

       

    • Comment on 01. The New World on September 9th, 2016

      Natives made it to North America because of massive ice sheets that allowed them to cross over.

      Some crossed along the Pacific coast

    • Comment on 01. The New World on September 9th, 2016

      Corn was relied on heavily.

       

  • John Reiter

    • The first sentence below is not quite right. I think what is meant is that industrialists appealed to people’s desire for novelty and comfort. That is how industrialists profited. People didn’t profit.

       

      Industrialists appealed to people’s profits. Evangelists appealed to people’s morals.

  • Jordan

    • Comment on 16. Capital and Labor on September 9th, 2017

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  • Josh

    • Comment on 28. The Unraveling on February 12th, 2017

      Spelling mistake: ‘Much to Falwell’s delight, conservative Americans did, in fact, stand against and defat the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)’. Should be defeat not defat. 

  • joy-filled weight loss

    • Comment on 17. Conquering the West on September 12th, 2017

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  • Justin Cerenzia

    • Slight typo here caught by one of my high school students. In the first sentence it should read, “By the end of the war, more than 4.7 million American men had served in all branches of the military…”

  • Kandy

    • Comment on 18. Life in Industrial America on September 14th, 2017

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  • Kelly Simmons

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on October 1st, 2016

      The market revolution economically depended upon not just free-labor factories in the but also slave-labor plantations in the south.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on October 1st, 2016

      *not just free-labor factories in the north, but also slave-labor plantations in the south.

    • Comment on 08. The Market Revolution on October 2nd, 2016

      -keep alternating between “North” and “north” here you switch between “Northern masters” to “northern states”
      -in paragraph 28 you have a sentence that reads “The growth of abolition in the north and the acceleration of slavery in the South created growing divisions between North and South.”
      -like I’m not claiming to be an expert on these things, and there is a lot of wiggle room with the capitalization of proper nouns but like, I feel like which ever choice you make should be applied consistently throughout.

    • Comment on 13. The Sectional Crisis on November 19th, 2016

      “Battles emerged over the westward expansion of slavery” feels a bit repetitive since the previous sentence just introduced this idea. Perhaps talk out in this sentence or combine the two sentences.

      For example: “Westward expansion brought with it conflicts over the growth of slavery and questions about the federal government’s role in protecting the interests of slaveholders.”

      “Enslaved laborers meanwhile remained vitally important to the nation’s economy, fueling not only the Southern plantation economy but also providing raw materials for the industrial North.”

      “Differences over the fate of slavery” ->”Differences in opinion over what the fate of slavery should be” or something along those lines.

      “After decades of conflict Americans began to fear that the opposite side of the country had seized control of the government.”

      “During the secession crisis that followed, nearly a centuries worth of fears devolved into war in 1861.”

    • Comment on 13. The Sectional Crisis on November 19th, 2016

      *The secession crisis that followed led to nearly a century’s worth of fears devolving into war in 1861.

    • Comment on 13. The Sectional Crisis on November 19th, 2016

      The first two sentences can be combined into one sentence for example:

      “Slavery’s history stretched back to antiquity and prior to the American Revolution it was accepted as a natural part of life. ”

      “English colonies north and south relied on enslaved workers who grew tobacco, harvested indigo and sugar, and worked in ports.”
      ->north and south where? I’m assuming in the Americas but that is not introduced. It comes right after “everyone in the world accepted it [slavery] as a natural part of life” so I think it needs to mention what “English colonies north and south” you are talking about.
      ->”north and south” In previous paragraph there was consistent capitalization of North, South, Southern, Northern, Southerners, and Northerners. Like it works capitalized or not, but it should be consistent.
      -> clunky wording

      “These colonies generated tremendous wealth for the British crown, which fostered seemingly endless opportunities and boundless imaginations. ”

       

    • Comment on 13. The Sectional Crisis on November 19th, 2016

      This was for the 2nd paragraph I must have clicked the wrong one somehow

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on December 4th, 2016

      The party leaders refusal

  • Kendall

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      But Americans were urged to action not only by books and magazines but by preachers (and) theologians, too.

    • The federal government possessed limited diplomatic tools with which to engage (in) international struggles for world power.

    • The United States (was) producing slightly more than one-third of the world’s manufactured goods, roughly equal to the outputs of France, Great Britain, and Germany combined.

    • When in March 1918 the Bolsheviks signed a separate peace treaty with Germany, the Allies planned to send troops to northern Russia and Siberia (to) prevent German influence and fight the Bolshevik revolution.

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      On paragraph 3 of Chapter 14, consider either leaving Douglas as a “pro-slavery moderate,” and delete the rest of the sentence, or explain more clearly that the people of the territories should decide whether or not they supported slavery in the territories.  Students might not understand “popular sovereignty,” so it should be introduced first.   You should probably explain how Breckinridge differed, at least saying that he had a very expansionistic view on slavery.

    • Comment on 14. The Civil War on January 29th, 2017

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    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on October 26th, 2016

      This paragraph is all about the Southern states.  Neglected are the Northern States, the merchants, the ships – slaves were shipped by them, and slave trading profits funded New England merchants, cities, factories, bequests for Yale and Brown Universities (for two).  Faneuil Hall, for another example, was built by money from slave trading. Slavery was not a problem – as long as the slave trade continued.  As the ending of the transatlantic trade was set in the Constitution, it was England that finally passed the bill in 1807 so that we Americans would not have the moral high ground.  It was only after slavery became not profitable in the North, with most slaves having been sold South (many were not emancipated), that the slavery agitation had a chance of success.

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    • Comment on 25. The Cold War on May 2nd, 2017

      I wonder if it would be useful to include a sentence or two on the events of 1946: the Soviet occupation of northern Iran, the exposure of ‘atom spies’ in the US and Canada, and the ‘international control’ efforts surrounding the atomic bomb (primarily the Baruch and Gromyko plans). This would help to provide a conceptual bridge to 1947 and aid understanding of how and why the Cold War emerges when it does.

    • Comment on 25. The Cold War on May 2nd, 2017

      Some more recent historiography may be of use here. In particular, I’m thinking of Campbell Craig and Frederick Logevall, America’s Cold War: The Politics of Insecurity (Cambridge: Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press, 2009) and Leffler’s For the Soul of Mankind: The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Cold War (New York: Hill and Wang, 2007)

    • Comment on 25. The Cold War on May 2nd, 2017

      It would be worth including a sentence on the limits of the Marshall Plan  and what it actually permitted the countries of Western Europe to do. I’m thinking here of the recent scholarship by the likes of William Hitchcock (in vol 1 of the Cambridge History of the Cold War).

    • Comment on 25. The Cold War on May 2nd, 2017

      It would be worth pointing out that Korea helps to galvanise support for the NSC68 recommendations.

      Thinking more widely, would there be interest in paragraph here that addresses the US covert operations programmes form 1947 onwards? The intervention by the State Department and the CIA in the 1948 Italian election and the 1949 onwards (disastrous though there were) BG FIEND operations in Albania set the tone for future Cold war covert ops. They also give lie to Truman’s insistence that he was not involved in such activities.

    • Comment on 25. The Cold War on May 2nd, 2017

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    • Comment on 27. The Sixties on May 2nd, 2017

      Perhaps add Alice L George, Awaiting Armageddon: How Americans face the Cuban Missile Crisis (Chapel Hill: university of North Carolina Press, 2003) and Tracy C. Davis, Stages of Emergency: Cold War Nuclear Civil Defense (Durham: Duke University Press, 2007)

    • The Team B exercise wasn’t quite commissioned by the CIA. It was forced upon the agency by key members of the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFAIB) who gained the approval of key figures in the Ford administration, such as National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft. Many within the CIA saw the PFAIB (and the Team B exercise) as a threat. see for example David C. Engerman, Know Your Enemy: The Rise and Fall of America’s Soviet Experts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 279-283.

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    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on March 19th, 2017

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    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on March 19th, 2017

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    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on March 19th, 2017

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    • Comment on 20. The Progressive Era on January 24th, 2017

      Can you double check on the founding date for WTUL.  I believe the national body was founded in 1903 — although it is possible that local branch was started in 1905.

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    • Comment on 20. The Progressive Era on March 19th, 2017

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    • Comment on 20. The Progressive Era on March 28th, 2017

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    • Comment on 20. The Progressive Era on March 28th, 2017

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    • Comment on 20. The Progressive Era on March 28th, 2017

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    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on March 19th, 2017

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    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on March 21st, 2017

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    • Comment on 15. Reconstruction on March 21st, 2017

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    • Comment on 04. Colonial Society on August 15th, 2016

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      “implemented across the colonies” might make it seem that the colonial legislatures were doing this.  It might be good to remind the reader again that Parliament was doing this.   Also “stamps for almost every kind of document” is somewhat unclear.  Law required a special tax stamp be affixed to almost every kind of legal or official document.

    • Comment on 05. The American Revolution on August 15th, 2016

      In Philadelphia, threats against the captain of the Tea ship (the Polly) kept the tea from even being landed.

    • Comment on 06. A New Nation on August 15th, 2016

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    • Comment on 09. Democracy in America on August 16th, 2016

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    • Comment on 10. Religion and Reform on August 16th, 2016

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    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on August 16th, 2016

      “violent pattern of growth” might be misconstrued by readers.  Maybe something different like tobacco is a what farmers call a “heavy feeder” ?  Tobacco is an aggressive feeder?  Tobacco rapidly exhausted the soil of nutrients?  Tobacco planters “mined the soil” as their crop rapidly took the nutrients out of the soil which meant that farmers then needed new lands for tobacco cultivation?

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    • Comment on 11. The Cotton Revolution on August 16th, 2016

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    • Comment on 13. The Sectional Crisis on August 16th, 2016

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      Serbia had much more to do with the start of the war than Austria-Hungary did.  Throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Serbia was looking to expand its boarders in order to recreate the “Greater Serbia” of old.  In fact, Serbia in many ways viewed Austria-Hungary as a dying empire (as all of Europe did at the time), ripe for the picking.  The Black Hand, the organization that Princip worked for, was run by the Serbia head of military intelligence, a man known as Apis, who had played a major role in the murder of the Serbian King and Queen in 1903.  It is also extremely likely that the President of Serbia at the time, Nikola Pašić, was also involved.  Hr was given warning of the upcoming attempt and chose to close off the border only once the assassins had safely made it across.  He also told the Austro-Hungarian ambassador that there was likely to be an attempt, but he did it so vaguely that the threats were never taken seriously.  Pašić, a Serbian nationalist and himself, new that the assassination of the heir to the throne would lead to war, and he knew he had Russian backing, meaning that the assassination would be the perfect opportunity for Serbia to take lands, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina, from the Austrians while looking like the assaulted party.  On top of this, the Austrians desperately tried to minimize the repercussions of  a war declaration against Serbia and went out of their way to get assurances from numerous major powers that their cause was justified and that their would be no foreign interference.  They also sent Serbia an ultimatum that, although was essentially unacceptable, would have prevented the outbreak of war entirely if Serbia had agreed.

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      I understand how many people believe that the term of Indian is unsuitable but there are still many members of many tribes who use this terminology. The Native American/American Indian/Amer-Indian/Indian debate still rages. It is very similar to African American / Black debate. I guess the terminology should be fixed at the beginning with an explanation of why the term to be used was picked.

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