If one actually read the news, he banned immigrants from 7 countries that happened to have muslim majority. If he actually had banned all muslims, why was indonesia not on the list?
The parenthetical statement in the second sentence is incorrect. Democrats held a majority in the House; Republicans did not gain a majority (their first in 40 years) until the 1994 election.
I think this is a myth; the old “Ellis Island officials changed our names” story has been disproven over and over again. Unless there’s some hard proof on this, it should be deleted.
See “Why Your Family Name Was Not Changed at Ellis Island” https://www.nypl.org/blog/2013/07/02/name-changes-ellis-island
I believe the name of the WTUL leader is Rose Schneiderman, not Ruth.
Thank you for the feedback, the error will be corrected in our 2017-2018 edition, coming August 1.
Thanks, Marc! Good catch.
Great catch, Kimber!
Good idea, Malcolm.
A quick editorial note: Woodrow Wilson was not the first president to leave the country while in office…TR went to Panama while in office….Wilson was the first president to go to Europe while in office. Small error but you may want to revise the statement in Ch. 21.
“I was reading through Chapter 3 and saw that there is some confusion between which Charles was responsible for chartering certain colonies. I think it may just be a recurring typo? Charles I is credited with New York and the Carolinas, both of which were founded after he had been executed.”
Sentence beginning, “HOLC introduced the amortized mortgage”: “principle” should be “principal”.
There is a typo: . . . “in all to many ways”. “to” should be “too”.
You want to correct the spelling of Alexis de Tocqueville in the selections for the chapter on the Market Revolution.
There are also a couple of OCR problems in the primary sources. Do you want me to send those?
(I couldn’t find a way to make a comment on that section.)
In the last few lines, starting with “the Munsee and the Dutch” the text is a smaller size than the rest of the paragraph.
When a student searches up a term in the search box the chapters that they show as results should take you directly to where the word you were looking for is instead of the top of the chapter. By bringing a student to the chapter page does not even let a student know which subsection the term is in. This comment is for all chapters not just this one.
[An even larger number of Indian slaves were captured during King Phillip’s War]
This should read, “An even larger number of Indian slaves was captured during King Phillip’s War…” Number is the subject, not slaves. Therefore the verb should be changed to was.
Am I incorrect in saying that it was not only Gay rights, but LGBTQ rights in general? I’m not sure.
Thank you for the feedback, the error will be corrected in our 2017-2018 edition, coming August 1.
This sentence is missing a comma before the and (which links two independent clauses). Should read: The collapse of the Soviet Union brought neither global peace nor stability, and the attacks of September 11, 2001 plunged the United States into interminable conflicts around the world.
You mentioned previously in one of the paragraphs that Robert F. Kennedy was assassinated. Yet, Dr. King was just killed. I think this sentence should be changed to assassinated.
Should be “than” 🙂
There are two instances of the word “the” in the first sentence, and only one “the” is necessary. The “the” after “and” and before “transformed” should be omitted in order for the sentence to make grammatical sense.
New York City’s Democratic Party machine, popularly known as Tammany Hall, drew the
(((((( greateset ire ))))))) SPELLING ERROR – NEEDS CORRECTION
from critics and seemed to embody all of the worst of city machines, but it also responded to immigrant needs.
Workers? or do you mean “(even, railroad owners complained, as they reaped…”
In the aggregate, Americans were better off in 1929 than in 1920. Per capita income had risene 10% for all Americans, but 75% for the nation’s wealthiest citizens.
risen, not risene
My last name is misspelled! 🙂
shitted on em
If St. Augustine Florida was the first permanent European settlement in the present United States, should we not include more information about how it was founded, and how Spain “expelled” the French from it?
I noticed there is nothing mentioned about the Lewis & Clark expedition or Sacajawea. I would expect to see something about it either here or in Chapter 12 on Manifest Destiny.
line 1-2 “Soldiers in the ____ served”
“and would delayed…”. This should be changed to “and would delay…”.
Please consider taking this photo down. I teach predominantly African American Students who do not understand what this photo represents about America in this time window. Their first reaction will not be to understand but be immediately offended. There are plenty of other images that represent the period, than Black face.
I noticed a typo here. It should be Charles II, not Charles I.
There is a typo here as well. Again, it should be Charles II, not Charles I.
I think this is the final typo I found. Again, it should be Charles II, not Charles I.
I use The American Yawp for all my courses and really love it, as do my students. My comment on the Colonial Society chapter is that I do not see much discussion of Puritans and Puritanism and their roles in the ideological foundations of American history. The detail on the Puritans is very limited–for example, I could not find any material on the Salem Witch Trials.
Perhaps reorder the chapters as 17, 18, 16 to aid students with chronology and theme. Maybe include the New South section in the West chapter and change the title to “New South & the Wild West”
NATO stand for North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, not North Atlantic Treaty Alliance.
This, most importantly, allowed for the maintenance of cultural traditions, such as language, religion, name practices, and even the rare practice of bodily scarring.
Should be “awoke” in the second to last sentence.
The passage I chose was, “He described a city captivated by technology and blinded by greed. He described a rushed and crowded city, a “huge wilderness” with “scores of miles of these terrible streets” and their “hundred thousand of these terrible people.” “The show impressed me with a great horror,” he wrote. “There was no color in the street and no beauty—only a maze of wire ropes overhead and dirty stone flagging under foot.” The reason why I chose this was because even back then people realized the negative impact Industrialization has on our home. And today, even though people are trying to make a much cleaner Industrial America with new earth friendly technology, it still doesn’t deny the fact that it continues to poison our homes and streets. Even after 100s of years, they continue to put “captivating technology” over anything rational.
In the quote, “As railroad construction drove economic development, new means of production spawned new systems of labor.” Despite how terrible the work environment was back then during the construction and progression of railroads. We also have to realize that it did give a lot of opportunity for those who were out of work. It may have been harsh, but some people had to make do in order to get by. As for today, the evolution of the railroad has helped with the economies all across the world. In America, with the improvement of rail systems, people are bringing in new ideas on how they can improve and how it can benefit everyone. New ideas means more job opportunities for everybody.
In the passage, “Did the new arrivals assimilate together in the American “melting pot”—becoming just like those already in the United States—or did they retain—and sometimes even strengthen—their traditional ethnic identities?” It tells me a lot on how immigrants reformed America in becoming the big Melting Pot it is today. Everyone from different cultures coming into America and help building it. But they never denied their ethnic traditions and applied it to their new home. For today, many cultures have been accepted by all. Even though there are many who continue to become ignorant with many ethnic groups, but sooner or later, the world will educate themselves about everyone in this world.
In the passage, “Emancipation unsettled the southern social order. When Reconstruction regimes attempted to grant freedpeople full citizenship rights, anxious whites struck back. From their fear, anger, and resentment they lashed out, not only in organized terrorist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan, but in political corruption, economic exploitation, and violent intimidation.” White people must really hated freed black men. And their a bunch of assholes for thinking so. But in a way, I can see that they didn’t want Blacks taking over and try to do business their own way. White men have been blinded by the fact that they were the big dogs and what they say is law. And if black men were to intervene with this moral code, then of course there would be chaos. Much like many of us, wouldn’t you hate it if someone else took something that you worked hard for? For today, many white people are willing to share their rights and freedoms with many different cultures. Although our election determined people who are still holding grudges, there are those who are capable of being equal with everyone.
In the passage, “By the turn of the century, two technologies pioneered by Edison—the phonograph and motion pictures—stood ready to revolutionize leisure and help create the mass entertainment culture of the twentieth century.” The phonograph and motion pictures I would say were the first technologies that embarked on the idea of social media. With the success of these technologies, it sparked a form of communication where everyone is sharing stories, thoughts and ideas with everybody because of these devices. Today, we all know them as smartphones and movies. These devices have greatly evolved tech wise, but the concept still remains.
In the passage, “Immigrants crowded into the cities, which grew upward and outward.” Immigrants began to takeover America. Which led to the process of making a mixed America rather than a white or colored America. It was an ultimate mix. Today, even though some ethnic groups are still the minority, white men will no longer be the majority. In a few years, America will truly be a melting pot, where there is no more than the other sort of ideal.
“temporary “fusion” movement” makes no sense–recommend editing out the word movement as it appears redundant.
It says “convicted on changes of…” when I think it’s supposed to say “convicted on CHARGES of”.
The Quinnipiac River is separated from the Connecticut River Valley by the Metacomet Ridge. It would be more accurate to say that New Haven was settled at the mouth of the Quinnipiac River on Long Island Sound.
The opening sentence could be improved by including the word political, as “mass participation of African Americans” is somewhat vague. Maybe, “mass political participation of African Americans.”
This paragraph seems out of place. It makes more sense after Paragraph 19.
Douglas (one S) Wilder
Britain relied on colonies for raw materials: lumber and tobacco
currency wasn’t the same in every colony
britain prefered gold or silver rather than paper that can lose value quickly
Board of Trade restricted paper money — Currency Acts 1751 and 1763 because of these problems. Trade btw brit and americans hampered by lack of standard money
to encourage consumerism on both sides of the atlantic trade, credit was used to allow families to buy things but this led to many americans to be in debt.
New England colonies, that were islands, were widely profitable. ( Jamaica, Barbados, Leeward Islands, Grenada, St. Vincent and Dominica)
Caribbean: sugar cane
Barbados: Lumber, and deforested island to make room for sugar plantations. Ordered house frames from New England.
Caribbean colonists relied on livestock.
Most lucrative=slave trade
Caribbean benefited North America by satisfying the North Americans sugar cravings and need for mahogany wood.
1680 sugar exports boomed and valued more than exports of continental colonies.
Sugar Act 1764 (continuing with stamp act and town shed duties) taxed sugar.
Patriots used domestic goods (homespun cloth)
Consumer revolution = growth
Cities crossroads for movement of people and goods
NY and Boston (17th cent.)= planned and reflected medieval cities of Europe.
Phil. and Charleston = planned to be urban
Annapolis and Williamsburg= regularity and order with government
1775 largest cities in British North America = Boston, Newport, NY, Phil. and Charleston
Social Ladder from lowest to highest= laboring class, shopkeepers, artisans, and merchant elites.
Largest cities in Birt. NA= Boston, Newport, NY, Phil. and Charleston.
Social Ladder= (lower) laboring classes, (middling sort): shopkeepers, artisans, and (higher) merchant elites.
enslaved pop = rural areas
domestic servants and in skilled trades
1725 and 1775 = significant for northern (urban) residents who wanted to participate in maritime economy.
Massachusetts= 1st slave colony in New England
NY= slaves trade from Dutch
Charleston (southern cities)= slaves important to market economy
1750 slavery was legal in NA English colony.
Virginias first slaves = 1619
Passed land down to eldest male heir = plantations grew and tobacco grew = slavery population grew to 40%
1705 = House of Burgesses passed slave code
Virginia planters used law to max. profit of slaves.
John Locke 1669 = legalized slavery in the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina
Carolina slaveholders = British Caribbean sugar island
slave code = defiant slaves could be beaten, branded, mutilated, or castrated.
1740 = able to kill a rebellious slave, or murder a slave (minor misdemeanor)
freeing slaves = banned
Factors combined to give South Carolina slaves more independence.
West African planters needed for rice cultivation because of level of immunity to malaria.
salves from Senegambia prized!
Carolina rice plantations = task system
once slaves finished tasks of the day they were able to grow some crops of their own. (participation in underground market = economic and cultural autonomy)
Stono Rebellion (Sept. 1739) = slaves headed to Fort Mose (free black settlement on GA-FL border).
Though unsuccessful it showed South Carolina planters that slaves would fight for freedom.
Slaves often employed on larger farms to grow cereal grains.
enslaved africans worked with European farmers on NY Hudson Valley “patroon ships”
NYC economy reliance on slavery increased
1712 slave rebellion in NY
1741 another planned rebellion
Quakers were against slavery.
1758 Quakers in Pennsylvania disowned people who engaged in slavery.
1772 slave trading Quakers were expelled..
Slavery didn’t take off in: Massachusetts, Connecticut, or New Hampshire, New England
Absence of cash crops (tobacco or rice) minimized economic use of slavery.
every major port participated in transatlantic trade (newport, rhode island and new England).
Democracy in Europe = oligarchy
Only a tiny portion of males could vote
North American colonies widespread white suffrage.
Assemblies taxed, colonial americans sued and lawyers had a greater role in American politics
American society less tightly controlled = interest groups rise
difference between modern politics and colonial political culture = lack of distinct, stable, political parties.
political structures fell under: provincial, proprietary and charter.
provincial: New Hamp., NY, Virgin, NC, SC and GA. tightly controlled by crown, had crown governors who could veto choices made in those colonies.
proprietary: Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey and Maryland. same as provincial BUT governors were appointed by LORD PROPRIETOR (person who purchased or received rights of colony from crown, have more freedoms)
Charter: Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. Formed by political cooperations or interest groups. (power distributed between executive, legislative and judiciary branches).
colonial gov. broken down into 2 divisions: council and assembly.
council: governor’s cabinet
assembly: approved taxes, colonial budge and check power of governor to make sure he didn’t take too much power from colonial gov.
Social contract pioneered by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.
man’s civic duty to support government by voting, paying taxes and service in militia.
women’s role became complex.
more land=more resources=greater fertility=earlier marriage
family sizes shrink (end of 1700s) because wives control their bodies.
romantic love changed husband/wife relationships (sentimental literary movement)
after independence wives began to not only provide emotional sustenance to husbands but principles of republican citizenship.
americans bound in chattel slavery, marriage remained informal arrangement rather than codified legal relationship.
white women: coverture = lost all political and economic rights to husband
divorce rates rose
couples turned to newspapers as a source of expression (print culture: how books and other printed objects are made)
Establishment of Virginia (1607) = printing was unnecessary
Berkeley’s death (1677) = printing in southern colonies revived
William Parks (1726) Annapolis: Chesapeake had stable trade in printing and books
New England print = published in London
Stephen Daye’s first print shop (1639) shaky
1660 the first bible published ( samuel green and marmaduke johnson)
Massachusetts = center of printing until Philadelphia overtook Boston (1770)
Philadelphia’s rise: benjamin franklin (1723)= parts scholar and businessman and german immigrants = demand for german lang. press
Grandchildren of 1st settlers worried their faith had suffered. This caused the Great Awakening.
1st revival: in Congregational churches of New England (1730s)
People discussed cleansing their life from worldly concerns and return to a more religious lifestyle.
Preachers successful in spreading spirit of revival.
Preachers abandoned traditional sermons and in favor of outside meetings where they could put congregation into an emotional frenzy.
George Whitefield encouraged apathy and had a simple message that was thundering against sin and for Jesus Christ.
He was able to make revivals popular.
1742 (connecticut preacher) James Davenport told congregation to dance around naked in circles at night laughing and screaming.
This extremism created a divide between the New lights and Old light by the 1740s and 1750s
Edwards and Whitfield encouraged people to question the world around them. Created language for individualism.
american militiamen fought for Brit against French Catholics and Indian allies
Brit towns (located on border btw New England and New France) dealt with intermitted raiding by French-allied Native Americans.
Catholicism threatened to capture protestant lands and souls.
Feud over North American empires started in 1754 when G. Washington killed a French diplomat; caused the 7 years war.
French achieved early victories; burned Fort William Henry in 1757, defeated General Braddock on Fort Duquesne, and General Abercrombie on For Carillon (mainly because of Native Americans).
War began in Europe in 1756, Brit-allied Frederick 2 of Prussia invaded Saxony.
Rance, Austria, Russia and Sweden attacked Prusia and few German states allied with Prussia.
European war: Brit supported Prussians and minor western German states of Hesse-Kassel and Braunschweig- Wolfbuttel
French defeated Brits German allies and forced them to surrender after Battle of Hastenbeck (1757).
Austrians defeats Prussia in Battle of Kolin (1757)
Frederick of Prussia defeated French at Battle of Rossbach (November 1757)
allowed brit to rejoin the war in europe
defeated Austrians at Battle of Luthen reclaiming province of Silesia.
Brits consistently defeated French.
Rober Clive defeated French at Battle of Plassey (1757)
Victories over French brought the fall of French Canada.
War in North America ended in 1760 with Brit capture of Montreal.
Brits fought spanish (who entered the war in 1762)
7 yrs war ENDED with peace treaties of Paris and Hubertusburg (1763)
Brit took over much of Canda and North America from French. But it was more than the Brits could control which caused tensions.
American colonists happy that the Catholic France were defeated because they felt secure that catholics in Quebec couldn’t threaten them.
Constant conflict with Catholic France and trying to stop the spread of catholicism.
1761 Neolin prophet received a vision from Master of Life that told him that the only way to get into heave is to cast off corrupting influence of Europeans, is by expelling the Brits from Indian country.
he preached avoidance of alcohol
return to traditional rituals
Neolin’s disciples Pontiac took his prophets words to heart and began the Pontiac War.
pan-indians helped from great lakes, Appalachians, and Mississippi river.
6 month siege of brit fort
In May, Natives captured forts: sandusky, saint joseph and miami.
June, Ottawas and Ojibwes captured fort michilimackinac
The war is partly because of the prophet Neolin and partly because of the British gaining so much land and not keeping equal relations and only wanting money.
Pontiac’s War lasted until 1766
disease and shortage of supplies undermined indian war effort
july 1766 Pontia met with Brit official dilomat William Johnson at Fort Ontario and settled for peace.
7 years war pushed 13 colonies closer together (politically and culturally)
After 7 decades of warfare Appalachian Mountains was their reward.
7 years war was expensive and the Brits thought their subjects should pay for some of the expenses. They taxed colonists on paper, tea, stamps, molasses. This caused bond between Britian and the colonies to be threatened.
creation of notes came about allowing people to deposit a certain amount of tobacco in a warehouse and the value of the deposit that could be traded for money.
1690 Massachusetts = first colony to issue paper money = bills of credit
Glorious Revolution area (1688): 2 causes to failure of defining colonies’ relation to empire and institute.
1) Britian was always in a war which cost a lot of $$(War of Spanish Succession and 7 years’ war)
2. Political Division: Old Whigs (who wanted land and resources) vs Patriot Whigs (who wanted to manufacture land)
Colonists thrived because of Britain’s hands-off approach to colonies.
Samuel Adams (Boston Gazette), described each colony as a “separate body politic” from Britain.
Creating of colonial assembly.
Board of Traded tried to limit the assemblies power but their power only grew.
Political culture leaned toward republicanism: Putting the public before self.
small portion held these ideas but it was accepted.
1740’s Enlightenment and the Great Awakening combined and challenged older thoughts on authority.
Philosopher with greatest impact John Locke.
Locke made the idea of education spread.
1739-40 George Whitefield spoke about conversion (taking responsibility for one’s own unmediated relationship with God). Whitefield, like Locke, made people question authority.
Post-war empire cost a lot of money not including the expenses that led to the increase in their national debt.
King George 3 (1760) brought Tories.
Royal Proclamation (1763)
Ordered forbade settlement west of Appalachian Mts. in order to limit wars with Native Americans.
1764 2 reforms passed.
Sugar Act: Done to stop the widespread smuggling of molasses in New England.
Currency Act: restricted paper money.
These acts increased taxation and restricted liberties.
1765 Parliament passed the Stamp Act.
1764 Sugar Act was created to be a direct tax. First direct tax.
3 forms of resistance to Stamp Act
legislative resistance by elites: 1st- passed resolutions in assemblies: Virginia Resolves passed by House of Burgesses on May 30, 1765 (colonists entities to all liberties, privileges etc.) 2nd- Calling of Stamp Act Congress in NYC in Oct. 1765, nince colonies sent delegates. 3rd- Declaration of Rights and Grievances to king (included trial by jury abridged by Sugar Act)
economic: Boycotts of GB’s goods spread to NYC, and Philadelphia, until January 1766, London merchants sent a letter to parliament saying they were losing money because of the act.
POPULAR PROTEST: Violent riots broke out in Boston. Andrew Oliver burned down a building he owned. Nov 16, the original 12 distributors resigned.Sons of Liberty took control over colonists. February 1766 Stamp Act repealed. Declaratory Act put in allowing parliament to have full control.
Townshend Acts passed in June 1767 to gain revenue which created new customs duties on common items; lead, glass, paint and tea. Ability to have American Board of Customs Commissioners.
Elite, middling, and working class participated together on more boycotting.
Women became involved in gathering signatures, creating commentaries in the newspaper and making clothing for the community.
Non-consumption agreements divided the cultural relationship colonists had with their mother country.
Boston Massacre: March 5, 1770- a crowd gathered around the Custom House and threw things at it and a small # of soldiers came. The crowd was unhappy with that and became enraged. The soldiers killed 5 people. One of the ring leaders died Crispus Attucks.
March 1770 Parliament repealed the new duties except the one on tea.
During the Stamp Act the colonists weren’t resisting cohesively or as coordinated as they were during the Townshend Act.
Colonists and mother country back on good terms in 1770.
1773 Parliament passed the Regulating Act, which gave the failing East India Company the ability to sell tea without the import duties (Mainly because EIC opened Britian money).
The people resisted because they didn’t like the idea of Parliament taxing them.
Tea Act said that it was a duty to pay when the ship unloaded.
November of 1773 Boston Sons of Liberty led by Samuel Adams and John Hancock said they would prevent the tea from lading.
Men dressed as Mohawk Indians and either seized or dumped tea in Charleston, Philadelphia and New York.
51 Edenton, NC women signed an agreement to support boycotts.
Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts): 1st- Boston Port Act shut down harbor and cut off trade. 2nd- Massachusetts Government Act colonia gov. under British control, which took away assemblies and town meetings. 3rd Administration of Justice Act allowed any royal official accused of a crime to be tried in a Britain court, rather than Massachusetts. 4th- Quartering Act allowed British army in colonists’ homes.
Ministry didn’t expect other colonies coming to aid of Massachusetts. Colonists sent food, Virginia’s House of Burgesses called for prayer and fasting to show support.
Massachusetts patriots created Provincial Congress (1774) they seized control of local and county gov. courts.
Early 1774 Committees of Correspondence and other assemblies were made except in Georgia.
Committees of Correspondence: sent delegates to Continental Congress.
1st Continental Congress Sept. 5, 1774 where they issued documents including Declaration of Rights and Grievances.
Congress issued a document known as the “continental Association”. The association said the people were unhappy with the current government. It also said that every committee has to be chosen in every county, city and town.
Delegates also agreed to a continental non-importation, non consumption and non exploration agreement to stop slave trade.
Colonists divided. Some were patriots and some were faithful to the King.
April 19th, 1775 Brits were going to seize local militias’ arms and powder stores in Lexington and Concord.
Both met at Lexington Green. An unexpected shot led to constant fighting up to Concord.
In June, militia set up fortifications on Breed’s Hill where they defeat the British. (Battle of Bunker Hill)
Different parts of the colonies were conflicted with who to support because they would be “akin to declaring war”
Congress made a promise and agreed to adopt Massachusetts militia and form a Continental Army, George Washington was commander-in-chief. But Congress was still trying to reconcile with the mother country.
Before the petition was delivered to England on August 13, 1775 the King missed a Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition (he said no to the petition because he thought it would lead to an independent empire).
Thomas Paine’s Common sense denounced the monarch and challenged the logic behind the British Empire.
Sparked more people for independence.
Lord Dunmore created a proclamation for slaves. After the Somerset case in 1772 slavery was abolished on the British mainland.
However, colonists threatened slaves into staying.
New York didn’t vote because they were under threat of British invasion.
The document outlined a list of grievances that colonists had with many actions the British took during the 1760s and 70s.
An early draft blamed Brits for transatlantic slave trade and discouraging attempts by colonists to promote abolition.
SC and GA were removes for opposing.
British attacked in Oct. 1776 on Brooklyn and Manhattan and won.
Washington launched a surprise attack on the Hessian camp at Trenton on Christmas Day. I twas a success.
1777 Brit. General John Burgoyne wanted the Hudson River, but the absence of General Howe and his forces (who received the nations capital, Philadelphia), led to General Burgoyne’s loss.
1778 “treat of Amity and Commerce” signed. This treaty turned colonial rebellion into global war once Brit and French fighting broke out in Europe and India.
1778 the British shifted their attentions to the south where they campaigned for more support from Virginia, SC and GA. British didn’t have the control needed.
1781 while the British was fighting everyone, the Colonists decided to gain assistance from the French who circled Gen. Cornwallis who was waiting for supplies from NY.
British had nothing left, so they surrendered.
Peace negotiations took place in France and the war came to an end on September 3, 1783.
Costs of war: soldiers died at Vallery Forge in 1777-8 from disease.
Women had to take care of the family and take on men’s duties. (Abigail Adams and Mary Silliman important women).
Slaves were able to determine lives after enlistment. 30,000 – 100,000 slaves deserted their masters during the war.
For Patriots (and those who remained neutral) victory brought new political, social and economic opportunities and new uncertainties.
War killed various communities (in the South).
Women thought the nation would be widowed.
War debt and depreciated currencies.
Immediate consequence: creation of state constitutions in 1776 and 1777
popular sovereignty: power comes from the people
Pennsylvania’s first state constitution was most radical and democratic. Had unicameral legislature, all free men could vote,.
Massachusetts’ constitution passed in 1780. Less democratic. Established a 3 branch government based on checks and balances.
Continental Congress ratified Articles of Confederation in 1781.
Shortcoming: Congress had no power to levy or collect taxes, regulate foreign or interstate commerce, or establish a federal judiciary.
Political participation grew; voting.
Society was less deferential and more egalitarian, less aristocratic and more meritocratic.
Revolution opened new markets and new trade relationships.
Western territories for invasion and settlement which created new domestic markets.
No civic equality for women, only some incorporation “republican mothers.”
60,000 loyalist left America.
Treaty of Paris promised loyalist their land lost from war but Americans reneged throughout the 1780s.
Loyalist on losing side of revolution and many lost everything.
1783 thousands of Loyalist former slaves fled with British army.
Black loyalists, continued to face social and economic marginalization, including restrictions on land ownership within British Empire.
Northern states passed gradual emancipation laws.
Slave revolts began for freedom.
Revolution failed to reconcile slavery with new egalitarian republican societies. This filed over in the 1830s and 1840s and effectively tore the nation in two in the 1850s.
1786-87 Massachusetts farmers struggled with debt and wanted the government to protect them, but the government only supported lenders.
These farmers took up arms.
Daniel Shays and “Shaysites” protested/rioted for their rights.
Different angle: Gov. James Bowdoin saw Shaysites as rebels who wanted to take control of the government through violence.
Shay’s rebellion caused debate over:
1. central government (James Madison) or state government
1787: revision of Articles of Confederation in Pennsylvania with 12/13 states (Rhode Island didn’t send a delegate).
Biggest problem for the government was the inability to levy taxes. Paying back for the war was pushed on the states, which was hard to pay for.
James Madison, wanted to create a new constitution called the Virginia Plan (named after his home state).
Madison believed in an extended republic.
Virginia Plan: 3 branches — legislative, executive, and judicial.
Legislature or Congress: 2 houses which allowed every state to be represented based on pop. or tax base. Able to veto over state laws.
Delegates agreed the AOC failed but disagreed on what should replace it.
Smaller states wanted to keep the one vote per state. (Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman in favor)
Larger states wanted the Virginia Plan, because of the increase in representation. (Pennsylvania delegate James Wilson in favor)
Roger Sherman’s Great Compromise: Lower house or House of Reps. where members were assigned for each state based on the pop. Upper House or Senate, where each state had 1 vote.
Ea. state had 2 senators who independently vote.
Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person for representation and tax.
June 1, James Wilson said the executive branches power will be given to one person.
September: It was decided the president will hold this power and will be elected by the electoral college.
Constitution was sent to Congress to be proposed which was done in New York.
Constitutional Convention voted down a proposal from Virginia’s George Mason (author of Virginia’s state DOR)
Feds. vs Anti- Feds.
Feds thought having a bill of rights would limit future citizens from new rights.
Anti-Feds said without it the citizens could risk losing their liberty to the government.
Arguments from Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison called the Federalist Papers (1787 and 1788 NY).
1788 in Massachusetts: Constitution was narrowly approved.
Convention in Richmond, Virginia , June 1788: Feds- James Madison, Edmund Randolph, and John Marshall vs Anti-Feds- Patrick Henry and George Mason.
89-79 vote in favor of ratification in Virginia.
July 2, 1788 the Constitution was in effect.
However, after G. Washington was inaugurated as president N.Y and Rhode Island had just completed their convention to ratify the constitution.
1791 Bill of Rights.
James Madison went against his originally sentiments toward the Bill of Rights.
He was elected to the House of Reps, because he promised his Virginians the list of rights.
Problems with the Bill of Rights: Women had no protection, slavery continued, and men with property could only vote.
Slave trade: Northerns disagreed with the practice because it was immoral and because they knew the more slaves the people in the south had the more political power they had.
New England and the Deep South agreed to a “dirty compromise” 1787.
1808 Atlantic Slave trade stopped for 3 reasons:
1. 1807 Britian was going to outlaw slavery and the US didn’t want concede to the moral ground of the rival.
2. Haitian Revolution (1791-1804), was a successful slave revolt against the French in the West Indies. This success put fear in the white Americans.
3. Haitian Revolution stopped France’s ability to expand. In 1803 the US purchased the Louisiana Territory from the French. People then questioned if the large territory would be used for slavery expansion but Thomas Jefferson thought of ending slave trade, to keep the US as a white man’s republic.
Ban on slave trade wasn’t effective.
People didn’t have to free illegally imported Africans, because it was up to the state to decide on what they wanted to do.
The new government protected slavery as much as it expanded democratic rights and privileges for white men.
G. Washington’s cabinet reflected political tensions with John Adams as VP, Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of Treasury (both supported American industry). While Thomas Jefferson was Secretary of State (supported the restriction of federal power).
Federalist vs Republican
Alexander Hamilton believed in self interest.
Governments role to Hamilton:
1. state protects private property from theft.
2. harness citizens’ desire for property, that way private individuals and the state could benefit.
Hamilton also believed that state shouldn’t disperse property equally.
Inequality: “The great and fundamenttal distinction in Society.”
Hamilton believed the government is a place where the rights of the wealthy are stored. He then created a financial plan to achieve his belief.
1. Government takes care of the unpaid debt from the war which equated to $25 million.
2. Congress creates a band (Bank of the US).
Goal: Combine federal power and economic vitality
State creditors would turn old notes into Treasury and get new federal notes for the same value.
These bonds were thought of as an engine of business and an instrument for industry and commerce.
1. Paying the full face value of an old note meant paying more for the note that was paid for at a cheaper price before.
2.Southerns objected because they didn’t want to pay again for New Englanders debt.
However, President Washington and Congress agreed with Hamilton, and by 1794 98% of the country’s debt was converted into new fed. bonds.
Opposition of the Bank said it was unconstitutional.
Hamilton rebutted by explaining the the needs the bank satisfies:
1. Depository for federal funds.
2. Prints paper banknotes backed by gold/silver.
3. Agents would limit inflation.
4. Controls 20% of stock, while 80% was owned by private investors (“intimate connexion”).
1791 Congress approved a 20 year charter for the Bank of the US.
Bank stock + federal bond = $70 million in new financial instruments
Securities were created, which allowed the government to borrow more money (1790s).
1791 excise tax on production, sale, and consumption of various goods. One including Whiskey.
Grains were traded for alcohol production (in the West).
Whiskey tax put a burden on western farmers.
(west Penn. in 1791) 16 men dressed as women assaulted a tax collector named Robert Johnson in response to the whiskey tax.
July 1794 armed farmers attacked federal marshals, tax collectors and burned down houses.
Armed force of 7,000 led by attorney David Bradford robbed the US mail and went to Pittsburgh.
Washington responded by sending 3 distinguished Pennsylvanians to meet the rebels and peacefully talk.
September 19th, the 13,000 militiamen that gathered n Carlisle, Penn were lead in the field by Washington but were then passed over to Henry Lee.
Hamilton oversaw the arrests and trials of rebels.
Whisky rebellion showed that the government could control internal tension, but it also showed that poor western farmers were their enemy.
Foreign trade = relationship with Great Britain
April 1793, G. Washington said the US would be neutral with trade.
Hamilton and John Jay sailed to London to talk about a treaty that pleased the US and GB.
Jefferson and Madison disagreed with the negotiations because they mistrusted GB and favored France because they were a new revolutionary state.
Treaty with Brit would favor the north over the agricultural south.
November 1794: John Jay signed a treaty of amity commerce, and navigation with the Brits.
Brits had to leave militiary positions in NW territory by 1796, US agreed Brit was the favored trading partner, US agreed to allying with Brit in conflict with France, and Brits would compensate for American Merchants losses.
Didn’t end impressment though.
Federalists were seeking to preserve social stability.
1789 French revolted against their king.
Americans were happy about the French Revolution. They were so happy John Randolph, a Virginia planter, named two of his horses “Jacobin” and “Sans-Culotte” after French revolutionary factions.
April 1793, Edmond-Charles Genet arrived in the US.
He encouraged the American people to fight against a British ally, Spain, but G. Washington refused.
Genet threatened to appeal to the American people but Washington demanded he go back to France.
Radical coalition of revolutionaries took over France called the “Reign of Terror.”
People who thought the revolution was spiraling out of control became federalist and those who were hopeful of the revolution were republican.
1796 (late) there was a new president, that was peacefully elected.
The new president was John Adams. Washington’s VP.
The french gov. responded to Jay’s treaty by the authorization of attacking American shipping.
Adams sent envoys to France in 1797.
XYZ Affair, led to many infuriated Americans who wanted war.
1798: In Charleston people watched the ocean because they feared the French navy’s arrival.
1798 a Massachusetts minister, Jedidiah Morse, said that the French Revolution was started because of a conspiracy led by a anti-christian organization called the Illuminati. It was a hoax though.
Quasi-War was fought in the Atlantic between the French naval vessels and American merchant ships.
Congress took action by creating 2 laws: Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws that were passed in 1798 were created to stop French agents and sympathizers from changing America’s resistance.
Alien Act: allowed government to deport foreign nationals or those who could be a threat to the nations security.
Sedition Act: allowed government to prosecute anyone who spoke badly about the government.
1798 Federalists agreed that free speech only meant a lack of prior censorship or restraint, and that unruly speech made society less free not more.
Alien and Sedition Acts represented a continuous conservative American revolution rather than a radical one.
Backlash from the Alien and Sedition Acts:
1. People disagreed and felt like everyone should be able to say whatever they want without any punishment. Ex: NY lawyer, Tunis Wortman demanded absolute independence and Virginia Judge George Hay wanted any publication criminal to be exempt from legal punishment.
2. James Madison (and Thomas Jefferson) opposed the acts on constitutional grounds.
1798: Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions argued that the government’s power was limited to the power expressed in the constitution. They had no more or less.
1776 American state governments didn’t observe the separation of church and state because they thought it would keep social order.
By 1833 Massachusetts stopped supporting the religious denomination; this process was called disestablishment.
Disestablishment began before the creation of the consititution.
South Carolina (Anglican before Revolution), dropped the denominational restrictions in its 1778 constitution.
SC still had to balance religious freedom with practice to keep the social order. Officeholders however were still expected to be Christian.
Requirements of being Christian were: oaths witnessed by God, compelled by religious belief to be honest, and called to live according to the bible. However as new Christian denominations came about (1780-1840) more Christians were outside of the definition.
SC ended the establishment law during 1790.
1833 Massachusetts support for the Congregational church ended.
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison supported disestablishment because it took away from the people’s freedom between the relationship of church and state.
Jefferson proposed a Statue for Religion Freedom in Virginia state assembly twice. Once in 1779 and the second time in 1785.
1787 C.C agreed that the national government should not have an official religion.
1791 the 1st Amendment guaranteed religious liberty.
Gabriel (slave) led 1,000 slaves to attack Richmond (August 1800), and end slavery in Virginia.
His plan was exposed on August 30th, and Gabriel then was hanged alongside other slaves who decided to revolt.
This revolt was significant because it was an example to other slaves, that showed them not to go against slavery, and this revolt led to increased restrictions in Virginia.
The revolt effected Virginia’s white residents because the revolt showed that blacks are capable of the creation of sophisticated and violent revolution, and that they know of other slave revolts, despite the white residents efforts of trying to hide it.
These slaves found out first hand after July 1793 when slave holding refugees from Haiti arrived in Virginia with slaves.
The Haitian Revolt (1791-1804) was an inspiration to African Americans and a nightmare for whites.
1829: David Walker, black abolitionist in Boston, wore an Appeal. This appeal talks about the need to separate from slavery and racism because blacks can achieve what whites achieve if not more.
1826: 3rd College Graduate of the US, John Russwurm, commencement address at Bowdoin College, where he discussed that in Haiti there is a republican government and ALL rights/liberties are respected.
1838: Colored American, early black newspaper
The revolt sent messages that enslaved and free blacks can’t be overlooked from the conversation of liberty and equality.
Whites resorted to violence to instill white supremacy and pro-slavery, by limiting social and political lives of people of color.
Bobalition broadsides, published in Boston in the 1810s became the basis of racist ideas that thrived in the 19th century.
Henry Moss (Virginia slave) = “a great curiosity” 1792: white spots 1795: completely white
Samuel Stanhope Smith and Dr. Benjamin Rush said the color black comes from leprosy.
Carlus Linnaeus, Comte de Buffon, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach: divided racial types of the world accroding to skin, cranial measurements and hair.
1787 Samuel Stanhope Smith: Essay on the Causes of the Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species
Believed men could be whitened like Henry Moss.
1784 Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia suggested that blacks couldn’t improve mentally
Benjamin Banneker responded to Jefferson by stating that blacks and whites are of the same flesh.
Thomas Jefferson, Charles Caldwell, and Samuel George Morton believed that biologically blacks and whites were different species.
Few people fully agreed with this but many agreed with white supremacy.
People also realized that if the black population was whitening then it was from interracial sex, not the environment.
1800 Jefferson elected to the presidency = victory for ordinary white Americans
Elites didn’t want a pure democracy because it would lead to anarchy.
Jefferson wanted his admin. to be different from the Feds. Jefferson said the nation’s strength came from the confidence of rational people.
Feds imagined a union that had expansive state power and public submission to the rule of aristocratic elites.
Jefferson saved the nation’s republican principle
The definition of citizenship was changing.
Mercy Otis Warren, female contributor to the public ratification debate over the Constitution. Which encourage other women to participate and discuss.
Republican Motherhood: women were essential because they passed on the principles of liberty to their children, which ensured that each generation had the same values.
“Fair Daughters of America” = should only marry republicans
Jefferson reduced taxes and the government’s budget.
Nation defense decreased
Jefferson wanted to live in peace which led him to reduce America’s national debt.
1803 acquisition of Louisiana from France.
After the 7 years war, France ceded Louisiana to Spain for West Florida (an important port for western farmers)
Jefferson believed it was okay to step outside of the limits that the Constitution implemented for the good of the country.
Foreign policy: Embargo of 1870
England, France, and Spain wouldn’t respect the policy.
Brits continued the policy of impressment.
1765-1811 Natives kept Neolin’s message alive, which was to not rely on the American/ European goods and encouraging the peoples to resist Euro-American encroachment.
Trout (Ottawa leader), Joseph Brant (Iroquois), Mad Dog (Creek headman), Painted Pole (Shawnee), Coocooche (Mohawk woman), Main Poc (Potawatomi), and Seneca prophet (Handsome Lake).
Center of Pan-Indian resistance: Ohio Valley and Great Lakes (1791-95).
W. Confederacy suffered defeat at Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794.
Tensk. said that the Master of Life entrusted him and Tecum. the responsibility of getting natives back to their path, and get rid of the Euro-American trade and culture.
Tensk. stressed the need for a cultural and religious renewal. (Christianity + rituals and beliefs) — apocalyptical elements
Tecum. said the Master of Life gave him the task to bring all land back to the rightful owner.
He offered communities an “Indian Identity” that brought Natives together.
Tecumseh partnered with Creek prophet Hillis Hadjo during the tour throughout SE IN 1811.
After Tecum. left the Red Sticks followed in his movement will seeking to purge Creek society of Euro-American dependencies.
Creek leaders that kept relationships with the US thought accommodation and diplomacy would push out American encroachment better than violence.
Lack of support shortened expansion.
Red Sticks cut off by Andrew Jackson in 1813. Jackson and his forces defeated the Red Sticks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
Led to Treaty of Fort Jackson
Battle of Tippecanoe 1811
Tecum. confederation’s conflict was combined with the Brits and American Republics war in 1812.
Tecum went through several losses at Fort Wayne and Fort Harrison which led Tecum. and his followers to tag along with Brit.
Tecum’s death: Moraviantown (Ontario) Oct. 1813
After Jefferson retired in 1808, the embargo ended because the Brits loosened policies on American ships.
Conflicting goals and interests with those that Britain had.
Because of America’s shipping industry increased there was a higher demand for sailors, so the pay rates increased.
American captains recruited several British sailors (30%)
Brits wanted their men back so they went on American ships and took their men back while impressing others.
Brits would release American men if they could prove that they were American.
1806: Brit demanded that neutral ships had to carry their goods to Brit to pay a duty before it could get to France.
Jeffersons Embargo: 1807 $170 million, 1808 $22 million
Americans feared a Native American uprising.
1809 Tecumseh turned his religious movement into a mili and political alliance.
Illinois governor, William Henry Harrison was protective of the territory so he took action in Ohio Valley. (Battle of Tippecanoe)
Republicans thought it was necessary to complete the war for independence.
1812: War Hawks- men who would be influential after the war of 1812. Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of SC.
June 1st, 1812 draft of a statement to go to war.
June 18, 182 (Madison signed) US was at war.
Atlantic Theater– GB was in the Napoleonian War. US invaded Canda (1813)
US second offensive against Canada and Great Lake. Successful (1813-14)
Southern Theater– Andrew Jackson gained a victory at Chalmette outside of NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA.
July 1812, 1st offensive against Canada
August 1812, they were defeated by Brit and Brits allies which cost them Detroit and part of Michigan.
1813: recaptured Detroit, shattered Indian Confederacy, killed Tecum., and eliminated Brit threat.
1813 Americans turned to the infant Navy
“Free Trade and Sailors Rights!”
Bigger Brit. ships were in the Napoleonic Wars and smaller ships were in North America.
The smaller ships were no match for America.
Brit was humiliated in single ship battles.
Captain Phillip Broke (HMS Shannon) attacked (USS Chesapeake) Captain James Lawrence June 1, 1813.
2 1/2 months later: USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere
1814: American naval victories
Lake Champlain stopped British invasion of US on Chesapeake at Fort McHenry (Baltimore)
Francis Scott Key: Star Spangled Banner
Napoleon’s defeat in 1814 allowed the Brits to focus on America.
The blockade east allowed the Brits to burn down Washington DC on August 24, 1814, and the 3rd theater came in the South.
Brits go to New Orleans and were victorious at Lake Borgne before they lost to General Jackson in Jan. 1815.
This victory came after the Treat of Ghent on Dec. 24, 1814.
New England Feds met in Hartford, Connecticut to try and reduce the Republican Party’s power.
Proposed a document:
abolishing 3/5 rule
president 1 term
2/3 majority- fed believed they could limit Repubs power
new states into the union
The victory at New Orleans increased support for the Madison admin. and the Feds. power continued to dwindle down.
Treaty of Ghent: made US and GB have a relationship again during the pre-war status.
The war mattered politically and strengthened American nationalism.
Treasury Secretary Alber Gallatin said 1812 war made the people more American.
U.S, continued to expand into Indian territories: new states- Tennessee, Ohio, Mississippi, and Illinois.
1810-1830: 6,000 new post offices
1817: SC congressman John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay created the American System.
Made America economically independent and encouraged commerce btw states rather than Europe and the West Indies.
Includes: a new Bank for the US, high protective tariff, and network of internal improvements
People thought the project was unconstitutional, Calhoun even changed his mind.
1812 war reinforced the nation’s importance in their political and economic life.
1823 President James Monroe created the Monroe Doctrine that declared both North and South America off-limits to new European colonization.
Monroe wanted a strong military and an aggressive foreign policy.
wanted to invest in canals and roads
Economic growth led to, class conflict, child labor, accelerated immigration, and slavery expansion.
1807, exports rose in value.
1816, the price of land-carriage was too high (Senate Committee Report said this).
In the beginning of the War of 1812 American’s rushed to create networks of roads, canals, and railroads.
State legislatures continuously charted banks, while Europeans’ money helped build the infrastructure.
Europeans later said that the prosperity of our country comes from them.
Depression: 1819, 1837, and 1857.
1837, LAND and SLAVERY
1857, RAILROADS and BONDS
Counterfeit bills caused issues.
Transportation Revolution: Vast lands available west of Appalachian Mts.
Margaret Dwight’s journey from New Haven, Connecticut to Ohio was a bad journey to the western part of the country.
19 years later (1829) Frances Trollope’s journey across Allegheny Mts from Cincinnati to the east coast was the opposite because the 1st interstate project was created.
1825, Erie Canal (NY): linked Great Lakes to Hudson Ri to the Atlantic.
1840, Ohio created 2 navigable all-water links from Lake Erie to Ohio Ri.
Robert Fulton: created the 1st commercial steamboat service that went up and down the Hudson Ri. (1807).
1st long distance rail line: B&O Rail Road Company (Maryland 1827, Baltimore and Ohio)
Funnle agriculture products of trans-Appalachian West to an outlet on Chesapeake Bay.
This idea spread to other states
Gov. helped pay for the railroads but in 1837 the Panic caused the gov. to stop paying for a large portion of the railroads.
NE and Midwest farmers were able to get goods to markets, but because the south was slow to being a part of the Transportation revolution they were unable to transport their products in the NE and England.
Transportation revolution led to the communication revolution.
1843 Samuel Morse, established the forty-mile telegraph line.
Transportation and Communication revolution for farmers:
Able to earn cash for their products usually only used for home.
access to credit (eastern banks): able to expand enterprise and increased risk of failure by distant market force.
1815-1850: explosion on agriculture technology.
Cyrus McCormick: Horse-drawn mechanical reaper, for wheat harvesting.
John Deere: stell-bladed plough, convert unbroken ground into fertile land.
New York: economically most important city because of trade, from Great Lakes.
St. Louis and Cincinnati: centers of trade because of steamboats.
Chicago: railroad hub of western Great Lakes and Great Plains regions.
New England lost advantage
Business corporation emerged.
To protect liabilities of entrepreneurs in industrial endeavors, a corporate charter was allowed. (Incorporations)
Many Americans didn’t support this new business organization.
1832 textile co. made up 83% of American corporations value.
led to the expansion, of the plantations in the South
19th-century states above the Mason-Dixie line were gradually abolishing slavery.
Vermont: 1777 abolition of slavery in constitution
Penn: 1780 freed children have a 25 yr indenture.
NJ: 1804 last N. state to have gradual emancipation plans
James Mars, indentured under Connecticut risked being put in jail for protesting against the indenture because he was stuck with his mother’s master for 25 yrs.
Ways to freedom:
Direct emancipation/manumission: rare
Harboring a fugitive slave was a crime by 1793.
Few Northern slaveholders emancipated their own slaves.
Emancipation proceeded slowly.
Pop. of free blacks increased.
civil rights protests
New England locales, could vote and send children to public schools (promoted edu. and developed print culture.
property rights (owned land, business, churches, found societies)
trial by jury
Free and unfree slaves increased in the north and south which caused division.
Southern states especially continued to have slavery because of technological advances: Eli Whitney’s cotton gin and water-powered textile factories).
Cotton Boom led to the profits going toward loans to purchase more slaves.
The commercial economy had its failures when it didn’t meet its promise of social mobility.
Wage workers were immigrants and poor Americans who were paid low wages, worked long hours, and worked in dangerous work environments.
employer vs employee
employer: stable with political power
employee: unstable and powerless
1825: journeymen in Boston formed Carpenters’ Unions to protest about poor wages.
Middle-class managers/ civic leaders were in between the feud of rich and poor.
Middle-class owners said they are in their position because of hard work and correct choices.
Capitalists and laborers in America: no class only a ladder
1825 one master carpenter group denounced their strike.
1865 speech in Kalamazoo, Michigan, Abe Lincoln said that there is no class because the laborers will later turn into the owners.
Poor families: Women and children had to help bring income to the house.
11-12 yr old boys could take a job and earn a dollar per week.
Joseph Tuckerman said there was a lack of discipline and regularity for the poor children.
Middle and upper class families: Children were able to receive an education to push them beyond the average person.
1820 was the creation of the Warren Colburn of Boston school for mercantile and other pursuits.
Boston School Committee created the English High School that would fit any child’s desire.
Women who were educated were able to live sophisticated, gentile lives.
Elizabeth Davis left home in 1816 to attend school because her father believed it would create a foundation for her character and respectability.
In the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville praised the independence granted to young women in the US.
Women with an education could become school teachers.
Poor youths found it difficult to find respectable employment.
when these children did find institutions they also found themselves indentured (House of Refuge in NY).
Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents in NYC sent wards to place, like Sylvest Lusk’s farm in Enfield, Connecticut.
taught boys how to trade and farm.
taught girls how to be housewives.
Opportunities for children were based on their family’s class.
Colonial American children took up thier parents’ chosen profession.
Market Revolution children could postpone employment if their family didn’t need them to work.
women: domestic consumers
men: economic production and political life
Separate spheres displayed class bias.
Middle- and upper-classes displayed their status by protecting their women from wage labor.
lower-class women continued to contribute to the economy directly.
Cloth production took away the need for women at home to make it.
However, this led to women purchasing cloth, making them consumers.
Martha Ballard, from Maine, made cloth for her family, not for commercial markets. It was year-round and labor-intensive.
Women became skilled consumers by comparing values because they could buy cheap cloth and create clothing for their husband.
Mrs. Peter Simon inspected 26 yards of Holland cloth to make sure it was worth the 130 pound price.
Women parlay skills into, business.
paid work for neighbor.
Women combine clothing production with management, of a boarding house.
some slaves could be paid for a higher price.
African American women were seen as less delicate than white women, so they are able to do agricultural labor.
white women assisted in planting, harvesting, and processing agricultural projects.
white southerners continued to make their own clothes and food.
kept racial hierarchy and slavery which made them feel morally superior to the Northerners.
Married women were not seen as their own person. They were represented by their husband (which never changed over time).
Women had no money to their name it was ALL owned by the husband.
Divorce was only allowed in Massachusetts and Connecticut because it was seen as a civil contract and not a religious one.
Marriage was a permanently binding contract.
Institutional to Companionate shift.
Institutional marriage was mainly about what each partner could provide to help keep each other alive.
Companionate marriage involved the emphasis on affection and attraction even though money was still essential.
Success in family life for a middle-class man: marrying a woman with strong morals and religious beliefs and owning a home.
Middle-class men duties: public sphere- create wealth, engage in commerce and politics.
Middle-class women duties: private sphere- keep a good home, cautious of household expenses, raising children, and etc.
Irish, German, and Jewish immigrants wanted new lives and economic opportunities in American between 1820-1860.
1820-40 the American economy pulled the Irish toward the NE cities where they performed unskilled work.
Irishmen came alone and then sent money to their family or sent money so their family could obtain a ticket to come to America (known as chain migration).
Irish Famine: exodus out of Ireland. 1.7 million Irish fled starvation and oppressive English policies between 1840-60.
Irish lived in the coastal cities with Germans, who used the ports as waypoints before living in a rural countryside.
1.5 million German’s came to the US during the antebellum era.
Some fled because of failed revolutions of 1848 but many fled because they wanted steadier economic opportunities.
Most germans were Catholics, but some were Jewish as well.
Jewish immigrants came from SW Germany and parts of Poland and moved to the US through chain migrations.
Jews found work in retail, commerce and artisanal occupations.
Irish created churches and catholic schools.
Jews created synagogues.
Anglo-Protestant Americans created an American Party called the “Know-Nothing Party” (Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia in the 1850s) who wanted to limit Euro. immigration and prevent Catholics from creating churches and institutions.
Immigration declined after the 1855 Crimean War and improving economic conditions for Euros.
Industrial northern cities, Irish immigrants increased in size in the working class.
However, to prevent the number from growing, workers formed trade unions to protect their economic power of their members by creating closed shops.
Examples: Philadelphia’s Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers or Carpenters’ Union of Boston
Unions did not become legally acceptable until 1842.
1840s labor activists such as the New England Association of Farmers, Mechanics and Other Workingmen (NEA) created the ten-hour day movement.
The time of leisure would give the men the ability to become more intellectual and improve morally.
1835, city-wide strike in Boston that moved to Philadelphia.
Textile operatives in Lowell, Massachusetts walked off their jobs in 1834-36.
During the THM in the 1840s, women in the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association, that was led by Sarah Bagley, provided crucial support.
FLRA desired for mental improvement like the THM.
President Van Buren created the 10-hour day policy for laborers on fed. public works projects.
New Hamp. passed a law in 1847, Penn. did so 1 year later.
1842 Child labor = dominant issue
child labor movements gained more middle-class support (especially from New England).
Fall River parents (southern Massachusetts mill town) asked for a law to be passed that prohibited a certain age of a child to not work and prohibited that said child, from working a certain number of hours in a manufacturing establishment.
Massachusetts passed a law.
The 19th-century New England did so too.
Public officials agreed that children between 9-12 shouldn’t work in dangerous areas while older kids (12-15) have to balance work, education, and leisure.
regular citizens’ increase in influence on gov. scared the founding elites.
Founding Elites (FE), believed that too much participation could stop the creation of a secure and united republican society.
Benjamin Rush: Address to the People of the United States
Made public demonstrations
delivered speeches at patriotic holiday
OPENLY criticized president
free people shouldn’t be deferred by elected leaders
democratic republic= people always sovereign
Sectional conflict between the north, south and west states.
Virginia was extremely influential to the country.
5/6 of the first presidents were from Virginia.
Slavery caused increased tensions between the northern and southern states.
The Missouri Crisis was an example of the tension.
Missouri as a slave state threatened the northerners political power.
James Tallmdge of New York proposed that Missouri was admitted as a state only if no new slaves could be brought in, and that slaves already born into that state are freed at the age of 25.
accepted in the House
opposed in the Senate
Henry Clay of Kentucky: “the Great Compromiser”
Klay and Thomas’ compromise had 3 parts.
Missouri is a slave state
Maine is a free state
36-30 line of latitude- states above this line from the Lousiana Purchase = FREE. States south of the line = SLAVE.
sectionalism tensions increased.
Missouri Crisis failed to settle the issue of slavery.
backcountry Kentucky duel winner (1806)
Jackson had a deep hatred for GB because of his wound and the loss of his mother and 2 brothers.
Jackson moved to Tennessee and worked as a lawyer.
1796: US Rep.
1797: seat in Senate
Political connections = General
Creek War: btw different factions of Muskogee Indians in Alabama
Battle of Houseshoe Bend 1814
Battle of New Orleans 1815 (occurred after peace treaty)
Adams, Secretary of State and son of former President John Adams, used Jackson’s military successes in 1st Seminole War to make Spain accept Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819.
Florida now in the US.
Adams-Jackson friendship doesn’t last long after a “corrupt bargain” takes place in order for Adams to win Presidency in 1824.
1828, Adams and Jackson square off again and Jackson wins!
Adams supporters: accused Jackson of murder, and attacked his marriage
Jackson supporters: accused Adams of elitism and claimed that while serving Russia as a diplomat he offered the emperor a prostitute.
Reasons for Jackson’s victory:
Represents ordinary white Americans (south and west)
Went against wealthy and powerful elite.
Key issue during Jackson’s presidency: sectional dispute about tax policy.
Tariff of Abominations (1828): import tax that protected northern manufacturing interests by increasing prices on European goods.
Southerners opposed: forced them to buy goods from the North’s manufacturers at high prices and Europeans increased tariffs on their goods which decreased foreign purchases of the South’s raw materials.
1828: “South Carolina Exposition and Protest” the resolution to the Abomination tariff, nullification (John C. Calhoun).
Calhoun’s essay was seen as a personal betrayal toward Jackson and led to a confrontation in 1832 at a commemoration for Thomas Jefferson.
Martin Van Buren (NY political leader/ “the Little Magician”) became VP during Jackson’s second term.
Calhoun returned to SC where the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were nullified.
If these tariffs came back into the state, SC would have to secede from the Union.
Jackson forced the tariff onto SC by the use of the military. Jackson did this by persuading Congress to pass a Force Bill.
Jackson did support the idea of comprise.
Henry Clay and Calhoun came up with a solution that lowered the tariff rates, and SC nullified the Force Bill.
disagreement among elite women in DC
disbanding of Jackson’s cabinet
Jackson chose provincial politicians, one was his friend, John Henry Eaton.
Margaret O’Neale Timberlake was a widow of a navy officer, but 9 months after her late husband’s death, she was married to Eaton.
Leading to rumors of Timberlake being a cheater etc.
Women would not hang out with her because it would ruin their reputation.
women held a strict code of feminity and sexual morality
Jackson blamed his cabinet for the gossip going on.
he later blamed the ambition of VP Calhoun for Floride Calhoun’s actions.
Jackson was angered because he had to go through the same scandal with his late wife Rachel.
one of the most famous presidential meetings in American history, that was called together by Jackson, discussed women’s position as protectors of the nation’s values.
4 members of the cabinet resigned including Eaton’s husband.
Jackson waged war against the Bank of the US.
1st BUS charter expired (1811)
2nd BUS charter began (1816)
prevent the issuing of bank notes
bring profit to stock holders
Jackson was a skeptic and believed the bank caused the Panic of 1819; a severe depression.
the bank lent money irresponsibly.
hoarded gold to save itself at the expense of smaller banks.
bank corrupted politicians by giving them financial favors.
Jackson vetoed the bank because of the following reasons:
well-connected people get richer at everyone else’s expense
protects British stockholders, but possibly doesn’t have the Americans interest at heart.
1833 no more depositing federal funds in the 2nd BUS.
Only did business with selected banks called pet banks, as critics would call them.
Opposition: Jackson gives wealth to the lazy people
Supporters: Jackson kept a monied aristocracy from conquering the people.
1st modern party in the US: Democrats (supporters of Jackson)
Jackson’s victory worsened the economic problems.
1834-36: high cotton prices, domestic credit and infusion of species from Europe spurred a bomb in the economy.
increase in state-charted banks
paper banknotes per capita increased
decreased interest rates for GB = increase in risky investments in the US
banks became careless about the amount of hard currency on hand to redeem banknotes.
June 1836: Congress decided to increase the number of banks that received federal deposits.
July 1836: Specie Circular was passed by the Treasury Department which required payment in hard currency for all federal purchases.
late fall in 1836, Federal land sales decreased drastically.
New York, May 4, 1837: panicked customers rushed to exchange their banknotes for currency.
May 10th, 1837: NY banks were running out of currency and stopped redeeming notes, which led to banks across the nation doing the same.
May 15th, 1837: largest crowd in Pennsylvania history outside of the Independence Hall in Philadelphia.
Panic of 1837 = depression
1839-1843: capital helped by banks dropped 40%
200 banks closed
cash and credit = scarce
8 states + territorial gov. defaulted on loans made by British banks to finance internal improvements.
Whigs benefitted from the disaster of the Panic of 1837.
Whig party had grown out of the political coalition of John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay.
National Repubs: concentrated in NE- anti-Jackson movement
Henry Clay held meetings to sway anti-Jackson leaders from different backgrounds to unite; giving them the new Whig Party its monarchial name.
1839: Whigs held their first national convention in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
Clay was not nominated as the Whig candidate for, presidency in 1840, General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was.
Harrison: known for defeating Shawnee warriors in NW before and during the War of 1812 (famously at the Battle of Tippecanoe).
Tippecanoe and Tyler won the presidential election of 1840, but this was a disaster for the Whig’s.
Tippecanoe’s longest inaugural speech in history then led to his death only 31 days in office.
Tyler’s adopted policies that looked more like Jackson’s than a Whig’s.
He vetoed the charters for a bank two and almost his entire cabinet resigned and the Whigs in Congress expelled his accidency from the party.
Freemasonry: originated in medieval Europe as a trade organization for stonemasons.
18th century, it became a general secular fraternal order that proclaimed adherence to the ideals of Enlightenment.
G. Washington, B. Franklin, A. Jackson, and H. Clay were all members of Freemasonry.
Prince Hall found a separate branch of Freemasonry’s for African American men.
1820s upstate NY anti-Masonic suspicion emerges.
Cause: William Morgan’s probably murder when he announced plans to publish an expose called Illustrations of Masonry.
The book was supposed to reveal secret rites
Morgan’s story convinced people that Mansory was a bad influence in the republic.
created a political movement that wasn’t happy about the economic and political change in NY and parts of New England.
1827, anti-Masonic, committee met in NY and committed to not voting for anyone who belonged to Freemasons.
1828, in LeRoy an Anti-Masonic Declaration of Independence was created for the Anti-Masonic Party.
1830 Anti-Masons held a national convention in Philadelphia.
1832 the Anti-Masons joined the Whig Party.
Nativists feared that Catholic immigrants would bring religious violence with them to the US.
Summer 1834 a mob, of angry Protestants, attacked a Catholic convent near Boston because of rumors about nuns holding women against their will.
Rebecca Reed published a memoir about the abuses novices and students dealt with.
Protestants saw the Catholic faith as a superstition.
deprived people of the ability to think for themselves
enslaved them to a dictator
preyed sexually on young women
potential to overrun and conquer American political system.
The increase of free men led to whites fearing that blacks would come vote.
This led to the American democracy to make laws on racial discrimination.
1839 all states limited black voting rights.
1821: all white male taxpayers but the richest black men.
1838: Pennsylvania prohibited black voting completely.
James Forten, a free-born sailmaker that became a wealthy merchant and landowner.
used his wealth to promote abolition of slavery
undertook a lawsuit to protect his rights to vote but he lost.
1830’s: race relations worsened
almost 400,00 blacks lived in America
S/W: Native Americans stopped white expansion
Racial and ethnic resentment created the wave of riots.
Philadelphia: thousands of white rioters torched an antislavery meeting house and attacked black churches and homes.
Elijah Lovejoy was murdered as he defended his printing press.
Racial tensions influenced pop culture:
Thomas Dartmouth Rice: Black face
Some whites joined free black activists when protesting about inequality.
Female Anti-Slavery Society: organized boycotts of consumer products like sugar that came from slave labor and sold them at antislavery fundraising fairs.
19th century: 2nd Great Awakening = succession of religious revivals
2nd Great Awakening- in response to powerful intellectual and social currents.
new sense of spiritual community
There was an increase in church membership, new Christian denominations and social reform.
Cane Ridge, Kentucky (August 1801).
Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian preachers gave sermons telling the crowd to strive for salvation.
women did the same.
Cane Ridge Revival caused more churches to informally give sermons.
juxtaposed Congregationalist and Episcopalian churches
Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, and Seventh-Day Adventist churches grew.
W/C NY known as “Burned-Over District” (Charles Grandison Finney revivalist preacher and coined the term).
1850: Methodism most popular denomination
1784: broke away from Church of England and created Methodist Episcopal Church
Pushed west over the Alleghenies and into Ohio River Valley where they brought religion to those who had spiritual needs.
Calvinism was too pessimistic for many American Christians.
(Radical revivalist preachers) Charles Grandison Finney appealed to worshippers’ hearts and emotions.
Lyman Beecher appealed to younger generations (less orthodox approach to Calvinist doctrine).
Spiritual egalitarianism: important transformation
Spiritual egalitarianism + Methodists: lack of formal training allowed more people to be preachers and attracted more preachers who didn’t have a divinity degree.
2nd GA exposed strains within Methodists and Baptist churches.
Alexander Campbell and Barton Stone proposed a return or restoration of the New Testament Christianity.
Dreams about Jesus Christ saying not to join any other church b/c they’re wrong
Book of Mormon early 1830
Chruch of Christ
Polygamy openly practices in 1852
1844 Smith was murdered
Shakers enforced celibacy
John Humphrey Noyes = free love to Oneida community in upstate NY.
Some preachers allowed women to openly express themselves. (Methodist and Baptist)
Racial integration in religious gatherings was promoted.
Unitarianism: A group of ministers and their followers came to reject key aspects of “orthodox” Protestant belief including the divinity of Christ.
founded Transcendental Club 1836: included ministers, literary intellectuals, author Henry David Thoreau, proto-feminist and literary critic Margaret Fuller, and educational reformer Elizabther Peabody.
Transcendentalists were united by their belief in a higher spiritual principle within each person that could be trusted to discover truth, guide moral action and inspire art.
Soul, Spirit, Mind or Reason
emphasized individualism, optimism, unity with nature and orientation toward future.
Ralph Waldo Emerson: “the eternal ONE”
The American Scholar (1837) and Self-Reliance (1841): emphasized reliability of the individual soul
Moralist were concerned about the number of people who didn’t attend church and who didn’t acccess scripture.
Similar problems on both sides of the Atlantic led to the collaborations from both sides to solve their problems.
New material connections:
improved transportation= steamboat, canals, and railroads.
reduction of publication costs, Frederick Douglass’s autobio.
international connections continued even after networks changed because of the American Revolution.
American and European missionary societies coordinated domestic and foreign evangelistic missions.
Quakers + British reformers = ended slave trade and slavery in early 19th century.
Thomas Clarkson, Daniel O’Connell, and Joseph Sturge, British abolitionists.
Theodore Weld, Lucretia Mott, and William Garrison converted to antislavery by the demand for emancipation without delay.
General Antislavery Convention of 1840
1840: London meeting that was created by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Staton for a national women’s suffrage convention, held in Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
foundation for Anglo-American Women’s Suffrage Movement.
Atlantic origins of reform = coming together with the British and attacking social problems while spreading the gospel of Chrisitianity.
moral and social decline = Jeremiads
Benevolent Empire: came from the 19th-century revivalism, networks of reform societies multiplied throughout the US btw 1815-1861, fusing religion + reform into a powerful force in American culture.
Benevolent empire = middle-class ministers dominate the leadership of antebellum reform societies.
reform based on keeping respect for middle-class culture.
middle-class women: increase in responsibility to maintain morals in the home and community.
Charles Grandison Finney: Perfectionism- live free of sin
Evangelical reformers: home/foreign missions or Bible/tract societies
Sabbatarians: end non-religious activity on Sabbath
Moral reform societies: end prostitution and redeem fallen women
overlap of these groups created the empire of benevolence, especially during Anniversary Week.
A. week: major reform groups come together to create schedules of meetings in NY or Boston to allow people to come to multiple meaning in one trip.
Temperance crusade most successful.
Curb consumption of alcohol which was supported by the middle class which was a significant social issue after the American Revolution by 1820s.
Hard liquor = staple beverage in many lower- and middle-class households.
1826: evangelical ministers organized American Temperance Society.
produced temperance lit.
Temperance was important to middle-class women because of the alcohol use led to men who abused, abandoned, or neglected family obligations.
temperance threatened lower-class workers (Irish Catholics).
1830s: drank half of what they drank in the 1820s.
British and Foreign Bible Society formed in 1804 to spread Christian doctrine to the British working class.
American Bible Society and American Tract Society gave out bibles by the use of steam-powered printing press.
Boston, NY, and Philadelphia, middle-class women established groups specifically to canvass neighborhoods and bring the gospel to lower-class “wards.”
evangelicals worked to make sure the word of God spread to those in the new American frontier.
American Bible Society gave out bibles and American Home Missionary Society gave financial assistance to frontier congregations who had a hard time achieving self-sufficiency.
Difficulties came when the benevolent empire tried to take on political issues like Indian removal.
When Andrew Jackson was President the removal of Natives was emphasized and in the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was opposed by Indians and the benevolent empire that saw the natives as civilized.
Jeremiah Evarts or William Penn = essay on opposing removal
Indian removal = Trail of Tears
Anti-removal activism led to the entry of American women into political discourse.
First major petition by American women focused on opposing the removal by Catharine Beecher.
Unsuccessful but it paved the way for other women to delve into political activism for abolitionism and women’s rights.
reformers saw slavery as the most God-defying of all sins.
1830s: W. Garrison, (Congregational revivalists) Arthur, Lewis Tappan, Theodore Weld, (radical Quakers) Lucretia Mott, and John Whittier pushed the idea of immediate emancipation.
1820s – fought slavery
1831 – est. newspaper The Liberator promoted immediate emancipation and black citizenship
1833 – American Antislavery Society
In the North: creation of antislavery societies
women and men of all colors were encouraged to work together in schools, churches, and associations created to combat color phobia.
used US postal service in 1835 to overwhelm southern slaveholder’s with calls to emancipate their slaves.
1836: Great Petition Campaign
Lovejoy: News editor and Abolitionist who was defending his printing press but was killed by a mob of people who opposed the abolitionists like Lovejoy.
Gag rule was passed in 1836 by congress (Whigs and Democrats).
Began to splinter because women were elevated and women’s suffrage was endorsed.
1840 Abby Kelly.
1845: traveled to GB to meet Thomas Clarkson
British and Irish antislavery support
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850: penalized officials who failed to arrest runaways and private citizens who tried to help them.
fear that Kansas would be a slave state when added.
John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry = slavery increasing sectionalism
perfectionism = no more
2nd Great Awakening + New edu. for women = women being in the public eye
Women were seen as pure, domestic and submissive = “Cult of True Womanhood”
the various reforms related to women’s roles as guardians of moral virtue, but there were limitations.
intellectual equality with men
most graduates found their own schools, spread a more academic women’s edu. around the country.
A. Grimke and C. Staton began their activism by fighting the injustices of slavery
1830s: Boston, NY and Philadelphia – antislavery mission.
Sarah and Angelina Grimke:
Born in Charleston, SC
shared experiences of slavery on Northern, lecture tour (antislavery movement).
fought for women’s rights to fight for rights of slave.
World Antislavery Convention in London: women were unable to vote or sit which led to Mott and Elizabeth Stanton to create the Seneca Falls Convention during 1848 in NY.
wrote Declaration of Sentiments for Seneca Falls Convention
15 grievances and 11 resolutions to promote women’s access to civil rights
married women’s rights to property, access to professions, and the right to vote.
68 women and 32 men signed the DOS.
Nov. 1785: Liverpool firm of Peel, Yates, and Co. : 1st of 7 bales of cotton in Euro.
Gossypium bardaense or Petit Gulf near Rodney, Mississippi, in 1820 changed the global cotton markets.
slid through the cotton gin
produced more cotton
came when land in the SE was available for people with money.
During the Indian Removal Act of 1830, land that was west of the Mississippi River was being sold to anyone for extremely low costs.
The area was known as the Cotton Belt
Joseph Holt Ingraham, writer/traveler from Maine = “mania.”
William Henry Sparks = “a new El Dorado”
Banks in NYC, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and London offered credit to anyone who wanted land in the sw.
End of 1830s: Petit Gulf cotton was perfected, distributed, and planted throughout the region.
advances in steam power and water travel.
cotton = primary crop for nation.
1800: SC primary cotton producer.
1835: 5 main cotton growing states produced more than 500 million pounds of Petit Gulf. = SC, GA, AL, MS and La
55% US export market
With the rise of cotton came the decline of tobacco.
Pros: cotton was the average man’s commodity, US could expand west with this crop and Thomas Jefferson’s republic.
Cons: Indian Removal, federal auctions, available credit, and immediate profit = split the nation.
Slavery was amplified with the existence of cotton that created the Cotton Kingdom.
Slavery existed in the south since 1619 (the dutch + jamestown).
Slavery increased in the south as farmers grew more crops, entered the international trade market and expanded lands.
1790-1810: South region went from 4 states to 6 states (GA, Virginia, N/SC, Kentucky, and Tennessee) + 3 territories (Mississippi, Louisiana, and Orleans).
Free pop doubled in the South
Cotton Belt = Black Belt
Cotton Revolution effects:
Slaves and Land = key to this time period
Slaves were the backbones of the Southern cotton economy: highest and most important expense
prices were based on skin color, sex, age, and location
Prices for slaves increased 1840’s – 50’s
plow boys = under 18: $600
prime field hands = merchants and traders: $1600
Produce cotton – Make money – Buy Slaves (repeat)
Cotton Revolution = capitalism, panic, stress, and competition.
Slaves had a shared sense of suffering that was communicated in slave markets of the urban South.
they helped each other ease their loads by breaking a hoe, running a wagon off of the road, causing delay, or pregnancy.
There was a fear of slave rebellion
Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia
Justification for slavery: Whites believed slavery brought order to African’s and African American’s because without slavery they would become violent, aimless, and uncontrollable.
Productivity increased but on the backs of slaves:
Mississippi: 4-5 bales per day -> 8-10 bales per day
Buena Vista Plantation in Tensas Parish, Louisiana: 300-500 lbs per hand -> 1700-2100 lbs per hand
Cities served as local ports.
New Orleans: entered union in 1812 and home to over 27,000 ppl. 1820= 2nd largest city in the south
Baltimore had more than 62,000 people in 1820.
Market located in nearest town or city.
1st decade of the 19th century American involvement in international trade was largely confined to ports in NY, Boston, Philadelphia and Baltimore.
1807: US imports outnumbered exports by nearly $100 million.
Mississippi River: promised change in trade, transportation, and commerce but there wasn’t any technology that could handle the bends and fights against its current.
1820-30s smalls ships could sail to New Orleans from Memphis and St. Louis but the issue was getting back.
January 1812: 371-ton ship called the New Orleans that sailed from New Orleans to Pennsylvania.
1st steamboat to navigate the internal waterways of NA continent from one end to the other.
New Orleans led to the creation of more steamboats that had the same function.
1860: 3,500 steamboats focused on internal trade.
Waterways connected rural and urban areas to create effective commerce and trade.
international trade and cotton production increase = increase in population.
Largest increase: St. Louis
Southern cities grew = attracted people uninterested in rural life.
bought rural goods to a market desperate for raw materials.
Urbanization = creation of middle class
this middle class thrived in the active, feverish rush of port city life.
Silk, cotton, and bright colors were in style especially in coastal cities: New Orleans and Charleston
Came together in groups that gave aid to the less fortunate
Shut people out and kept the inner-circle
South was the most diverse in the US.
4 million enslaved people by 1860 (more than 45% of the population).
Slaves created codes, religious congregations, social aid organizations, and family networks.
Family brought slaves together when it was fairly easy to be apart because of the environment they were in.
family units allowed slaves to maintain religious beliefs, ancient ancestral traditions, and names passed down.
Families didn’t last long
polygamous marriages: maintained cultural traditions; language, religious, name practices, and bodily scarring. – SC and Louisiana
marriage connected slaves to their pasts
start of civil war: 2/3 slaves were members of nuclear households
Slaves who had families before making an arrival to the US were under threat of sale downriver; near constant flow of slave laborers down the Mississippi Ri. to cotton belt in SW.
Cotton Revolution: 1/5-1/3 of slave marriages were broken up through, sale.
Slaveholders used marriage against the slaves, to counteract any disobedience.
Death of the slaveholder could separate a married couple.
Women = more vulnerable to different shifts that come with slavery.
Separation from family
Working when pregnant
Harriet Jacobs NC, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl
Rape was only seen with 2 white people or a black man and a white woman.
Racist pseudo-scientists believed that the sexual organs aren’t compatible.
Rape wasn’t considered a crime toward enslaved women.
example: 19-year-old Celia and Callaway County
White and free black women had no rights to vote, own property or represent themselves.
Southern ministers said that God himself selected Africans for bondage.
Protestantism spread rapidly among African Americans.
missionaries work became a crucial element of Christian expansion.
some learned indigenous languages
some prevented indigenous children from speaking, native language.
1838 preached a proslavery theology.
Slaves received Christian instruction from white preachers or masters who stressed the importance of slaves.
Anti-literacy ensured slaves would be unable to read the bible
William Wells Brown
slaves practiced their own form of Christianity.
Nat Turner: spirits visited him- considered himself a prophet
August 22nd, 1831: Nat Turners Southampton County, Virginia, and 6 others = slave rebellion.
57 white men, women, and children were killed.
Evangelical religion: what it means to be a southern woman or man
women: sexual virtue
Dueling: 2 men who couldn’t settle a dispute would exchange pistol shots to prove equal honor.
President A. Jackson
VP Aaron Burr
US Senator H. Clay
US Senator T.H Benton
Lower class fighting/victory: fistfights and shootouts/maiming opponent
Upper class: risking life
Wealthier people weren’t prosecuted for dueling even though it was against the law, while the lower-class southerners were found guilty more often.
Women received honor by managing the household and for those women on a plantation, honor would come from managing a large bureaucracy of potentially rebellious slaves.
iron ore mining spurred in Wisconsin
increase in German and Scandinavian immigrants in Upper Mississippi.
Rocky mts. desirable to fur traders.
Indians controlled much of the land east of the Mississippi ri.
Dispossession of American Indians was because of manifest destiny and racism.
19th century: Spain encouraged southern slave owners to come to Florida in order to expand.
1812: A large group of Georgia slave owners raided Fernandina and raidedSpanish and British plantations along with the St. Johns River.
July 27th, 1816 US army regulars attacked the Negro fort and killed 270 blacks.
invasion on FL by Jackson = 1st Seminole War
Creek and Seminole Indians occupied Apalachicola River, wet prairies and hammock islands of central Florida.
Spain agreed to transfer territory to the US for $5 million dollars and more as part of the Adams-Onis Treaty.
Carolinas + GA + VA entered FL.
Free blacks and escaped slaves occupied the Seminole district which was one major cause of the 3 Seminole Wars, btw 1817-1858.
General Thomas Sidney Jesup, US commander : 2nd Seminole War = negro, not an Indian war.
1845 Florida was a state.
Jackson took the most action in removing Indians.
Indian Removal Act passed in 1830.
Believed in paternalism belief: Indians being under control would give them more chances to be civilized.
Fed. Gov. pressured Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Cherokee nations to sign treaties and surrender land.
Cherokee Nation’s attempted to sue the state of GA to protect their lands.
Beginning of 1826: GA wanted the Cherokee out because Georgians wanted more land.
GA grew impatient and abolished state agreements with Cherokee.
Jackson asked the Indians to move west
1829, The discovery of gold in GA pushed this want for Indians to move west more.
Beginning in 1828: Cherokee defended themselves by citing treaties signed with the US that ensured the Cherokee nation land and independence.
Worcester v GA 1832: ruled GA laws didn’t apply w/i Cherokee territory.
GA ignored Supreme Court.
Jackson admin. refused any deal that involved anything less than complete removals of Cherokee.
1835 Cherokee signed the Treaty of New Echota: ceded lands in GA for 5 million dollars.
signed by John Ridge
John Ross pointed out US gov. hypocrisy.
President Martin van Buren (1838) used the New Echota Treaty to forcibly remove those Cherokee not obeying the Treaty’s cession of territory.
Trail of Tears
Odawa and Ojibwe communities in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota = RESISTED REMOVAL
Purchased land independently
Black Hawk War (1812) removal of Sauk to Kansas (example of removal in north).
1830s Comanche launched raids into N. Mexico which ended an unprofitable but peaceful diplomatic relationship.
New trading relationship with Anglo-American traders in Texas
Comanche + Comancheria peaked in power.
controlled commodities; captives, livestock, and trade goods
US- Mexican War began in 1846
Great Basin region was integrated with the commercial trading network of the west.
Mexicans + anglo-a’s entered the region
increase in violence: Paiute and W. Shoshone as traders, settlers , and Mormon religious refugees, aided by US officials and soldiers, committed daily acts of violence.
Thomas L. McKenney = Civilization Policy
American Indians = to whites
Congress rejected McKenney;s plan but passed the Civilization Fund Act in 1819.
$10,000 annual annuity that went toward societies that funded missionaries to create schools for Indian tribes.
allowed the gov. to take away land to create schools.
1841: Cherokee Nation opened a public school system.
1843: included 18 more school
1852: 21 schools and a national enrollment of 1,100 pupils
Those who migrated west went with families and lived along navigable rivers.
Small farming was boosted because of the increase in population in the east which led to increase in competition.
Because men needed wives that would help them create a home in the west there was more opportunity for women.
conflict: the government should help the migrants by paying for infrastructure development vs. the migration is private therefore the government isn’t needed.
federal aid was essential at the end
The panic of 1819 caused more debt and the west was a way to get away from the debt.
New roads and canals increased migration and settlement.
Canals in the East
Roads in the West
Steamboats grew quickly: 1810s -1820s
Erie Canal: Great Lakes + NYC done in 1825
helped NY outpace east coast rivals.
NY center for commercial import and export in US.
Railroads encouraged rapid growth of towns and cities.
Baltimore and Ohio line hoped to link mid-Atlantic cities
promised to move commerce faster
1821: Mexico gained independence from Spain.
wanted to attracted people from the N.
immigrants mainly from the south.
1829: slavery outlawed but immigrants had to convert to Catholicism.
1830: no more immigrants
1834 in Texas: Centralists vs Federalists
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (centralists) who repudiates federalist Constitution of 1824.
Texians opposed and met in November
Texas declared independence on March 2, 1836
At Alamo and Goliad, SA crushed small rebel forces and massacred 100’s of prisoners.
Mexican army pursued retreating Texian army deep into E. Texas spurring a mass panic evacuation. RUNAWAY SCAPE
Surprise attack on SA led by Sam Houston on April 21st, 1836. The battle of San Jacinto lasted 18 mins.
SA was captured and signed the Treaty of Velasco on May 14th, 1836. W/d army from Texas and acknowledged their independence.
Democrat James K. Polk won the election of 1844, and promised westward expansion, with eyes on Texas, Orgon, and Cali.
March 3rd, 1845 he made an official offer
July 4th, Texas was the 28th state.
Side note: John Tyler (expelled from Whig Party) brought up bringing Texas in as a new state. This caused tension because people worried if Texas would be a slave or free state.
Mexico and Texas fought over the Nueces strip.
The NS was controlled by independent American Indian tribes.
Nov. 1845: President Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico City to try to purchase the NS, parts of New Mexico, and Cali.
Mexican City refused
Polk sent 4,000 troops under General Zachary Taylor to Corpus Christi, Texas
1846: he sent the troops to the territory to show force would push lands of Cali onto the bargaining table too.
Wasn’t taken well = 11 killed US soldiers.
Declaration of War on May 13, but John Q Adams and John C. Calhoun opposed it.
50,000 volunteer soldiers came because of promises of adventure and conquest abroad.
Fall 1846 US Army invaded Mexico
Disease killed 7x’s as many soldiers as combat.
soldiers left in huge numbers
Feb. 2nd, 1848 signing of Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Santa Fe trade = land grants that brought numerous settlers to texas.
Gadsden Purchase of 1854 added to American gains north of Mexico.
1848: there were 20,000 Americans living west of the Rockies, with about 3/4 of that number in Oregon.
California attracted so many people west because of GOLD.
Jan. 24th, 1848 James W. Marshall (contractor) hired John Sutter discovered gold on Sutter’s sawmill land in Sacramento Valley.
need for a transcontinental railroad to provide service for passengers and goods from the Midwest to the east coast.
Diversity = Conflict
1850s: 1/5 of mining pop. was Chinese and Mexican immigrants.
Goal for the US government:
keeping European countries out of affairs in the western hemisphere.
President James Monroe
Secretary of State John Q. Adams: helped create the Monroe Doctrine
Reasons for the Monroe Doctrine:
Russians in the NW
Brits in Canada
Spanish in S. America
Brits in Carribean
(speech) US House Reps on July 4, 1821, acknowledged the need for a foreign policy that protected and encouraged the nation to grow.
Adams main concern was the ability of the US to compete commercially with Brits in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Expansion of economy
protection from foreign pressures
Expansion of slavery in the Caribbean was supported by northerners and southerners.
Filibustering: privately financed schemes of different degrees where people occupied foreign territory without the US gov. approval.
Filibustering in Cuba
racialized revolution in Cuba
These energized the movement to annex Cuba
Annexation of Cuba (ATTEMPTS) by Narciso Lopez (Cuban dissident) never succeeded.
seized parts of Baja peninsula in Mexico
took control and est. a slaving regime in Nicaragua.
executed in Honduras
1860: 4 way presidency race.
Democratic party divided
Senator Douglas (Northern demos. liked him): pro-slavery
Baltimore convention got him on the ballot with VP John C Breckinridge (Kentucky).
Republicans weren’t unified.
May 1860 consensus at a convention for the party’s nominees telling them they need to carry all free states.
Ny senator William Seward (passed over- pro-immigration was a problem for Penn. and NJ)
A. Lincoln Illinois (selected on 3rd ballot).
TN, John Bell, headed the Constitutional Union Party.
A. Lincoln was in the lead during the presidential race for republicans.
First runner-up: Breckinridge
Election of Lincoln was a threat to slavery so southern states seceded from the union.
Dec. 20, 1860, SC
Jan. 9, 1861, MS
Jan. 10, 1861, FL
Jan. 11, AL
Jan 19, GA
Jan 26, LA
Feb 1, TX
Confederacy was created.
Alexander Stephens cornerstone speech
Unionist southerners went against the Confederacy because slavery was weakest there.
President James Buchanan did not try to change anything.
Crittenden’s Compromise was proposed by Senator Crittenden from the Committee of Thirteen. It was a fail.
7 seceding states met in Montgomery, AL on Feb. 4th to organize a new nation. (Unionists)
spring 1861, NC and TM had not held secession conventions while voters in VA, Missouri, and Arkansas initially voted down secession.
Lincoln said the secession was legally void.
military force was used to keep possession over seceded states.
Fort Sumter Charleston SC in April 1861.
Hostilities erupted on April 12, 1861, when Confederate Brigadier General PGT Beauregard fired on Fort Sumter.
11 states renounced allegiance to the US.
Union adopted Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan to suppress rebellion.
Lincoln feared losing the boarding states because that loss would lead to a decrease in resources and threaten the capital in Washington.
Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky remained loyal.
war would have disrupted the commercial and financial markets abroad, because of the lack of cotton produced.
May 1861 General Benjamin F. Butler accepted fugitive slaves who came to Fortress Monroe in Virginia.
The Union saw slaves as a helpful asset to them because the slaves could tell them where the Confederate troops are.
When the Confederates won at the Battle of Bull Run (Virginia), Lincoln put Major General George B. McClellan to, commander of Amry of the Potomac.
Repubs passed the whig economic package (Homestead Act, Land-Grant College, and Pacific Railroad Act.
moves toward nationally controlled currency (greenback)
Creation of banks with national characteristics.
Peace Democrats vs War Democrats and Republicans
Soldiers lived by routine and to prevent boredom most soldiers wrote a lot.
Social commentators thought that soldiers would be indecent because of the habits they have picked up away from home.
Confederate and Union soldiers traded goods because it wasn’t uncommon for each side to run out of supplies.
John Brown’s Body
Union: praising John Brown’s actions at Harper’s Ferry
Confed: Vilify Brown
George McClellan’s “Peninsular Campaign” was a failure because of his over cautiousness and Robert E. Lee.
Feb. 1862, Ulysses Grant captured Confederate Forts Henry and Donelson along the TN Ri.
one of the deadliest clashes happened on the TN ri. at Battle Shiloh on April 6-7, 1862. (Union victory)
Spring of 1862 two ironclad warships fought to duel at Hampton Rds., VA.
April 1862: 1st Confiscation Act – slavery abolished in District of Columbia.
July 1862: 2nd Confiscation Act – emancipated slaves under Union control
August 1862: first iteration of the emancipation proclamation.
Emancipation Proclamation occurred in fall of 1862 along Antietam creek in ML.
Sept. 17, 1862, McClellan and Lee’s forces collided at the Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg.
first major battle of Civil War
Confeds lost the Battle of Antietam.
1862: Massachusetts abolitionist Thomas Wentworth Higginson’s 1st SC Vols. (1st regi. of black soldiers).
Jan. 1st, 1863 Proclamation
James Henry Gooding (black corporal 54th Massachu. Vol) asked Lincoln why the vols were paid less (Sept. 1863).
15 black soldiers received the Medal of Honor
concerned for their safety
camp servants (property)
March 1865 a law was passed that allowed the enlistment of black soldiers (Richmond hospital worker).
Chancellorsville, VA btw April 30 and May 6, 1863 = Confed. Victory and wounding of Stonewall Jackson
Lee invaded Penn. in 1863
July 1-3 Gettysburg (bloodiest battle of war) where lee retreated from Penn.
1862: Gibraltar of the West
Fall of Vicksburg = split confederacy
NY Draft riots in July 1863: whites fears that blacks would take away their jobs
To ensure the legal end of slavery Repubs. drafted the 13th amendment.
William Sherman: March to the Sea in fall of 1864 arrived in Savannah, (1865) SC, captured Charleston.
Lee surrendered Army of N. VA to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April, 9th, 1865.
Lincoln crushed McClellan in both the popular and electoral vote.
November 8, 1864 (Lincoln vs McClellan) needed 117 electoral votes out of 223
Lincoln won because of support from William T. Sherman’s capture of Atlanta on Sept. 2, 1864, Union soldiers, and radical Repubs.
1860: W. VA, NV, and Kansas added as states
Lincoln and VP Andrew Johnson (TN)
McClellan (war democrat) and VP George H. Pendleton (Ohio — Peace Democrat)
Widows increased because of the Civil war but they weren’t able to be the ideal widow with so much to do especially while either being pregnant or tending to an infant.
The Good Death changed during the Civil War
Sally Randle Perry “Now I’m a widow. Ah! Little the world think of the agony it contains!” This quotation comes from her diary she wrote after her husband’s death in Sharpsburg.
1830s: Nitrous Oxide, Ether, Chloroform and Opium ease pain for amputation.
1862 William Alexander Hammon was appointed as Surgeon General for the US to prevent overdosing and ensure ample supplies.
surgeons ignored labels and created their own concoctions
Northern hospitals were better because of women like Dorothea Dix who was a Union’s Superintendent for Army Nurses.
Civil war medicine was created to cure people instead of preventing the disease.
soldiers created home remedies that only made their disease(s) worse.
poor immune system
refer to paragraph 73.
Civil War soldiers came from rural areas where less exposure to diseases, caused these soldiers to have low immunity.
Refer to paragraph 73…
North = more unity
Women had more leadership roles in sanitary fairs
1862: confed. congress passed its first conscription act; males 18-35 were required to participate in military services (extended to 45).
1863: food shortages = bread riots (led by women) – Richmond, VA and Agusta, Macon, and Columbus, GA.
Rose O’Neal Greenhow (DC) traveled and gave information to her Confed. contact.
Allan Pinkerton placed her in Old Capitol Prison
Released: returned to Euro. to bring support for confed.
Elizabeth “Crazy Bet” Van Lew (Richmond, VA): sacrificed her social standing for the Union.
spied on confederacy
Ulysses placed a special guard on her
acted as a nurse to the Union prisoners in Libby Prison
1864: hard war
Grant’s success at Vicksburg and Chattanooga, TN (Nov. 1863) and Meade’s failure led Lincoln to promote Grant as general-in-chief of Union Army in 1864 (early).
Grant led the Union to the bloodiest battles: Battle of Cold Harbor and the siege of Petersburg. June 1864: Grant and army were trying to cut off confed. supplies from Richmond.
William Tecumseh Sherman went through central TN and N. GA and captured vital rail hub of Atlanta in September 1864.
Crittenden’s Compromise: protection on the institution of slavery through constitutional amendments.
Reconstruction began when the war ended.
freed slaves in areas of rebellion
700,000 in bondage
Jan. 31st, 1865 – 13th amendment
April 14th, 1865 Lincoln was assassinated in John Wilkes Booth, “Our American Cousin.”
Johnson took over in April of 1865, where he pardoned the south for participating in the rebellion but he did not pardon those who owned more than $20,000 in property.
Southern governments still implemented antebellum power relationships.
Thaddeus Stevens: racial equality
Civil Rights Act of 1866: first attempt to constitutionally define all American-born residents as citizens with fundamental rights.
14th amendment: ensured that state laws could not deny due process or discriminate against groups of people.
approved on June 13th, 1866.
Johnson opposed the 14th amend. and vetoed the Civil Rights Act.
Repubs. overrode the veto in 1867 and passed 2 reconstruction acts and divided the south into 5 milit. districts.
14th amend. was ratified on July 9th, 1868.
1868 General Ulysses S. Grant won presidency because of black voters.
1860 only 5 states allows African-Americans to vote
1867 African-Americans are in positions of power
Black men voted in and served as delegates to the state constitutional conventions in 1868.
There was also a creation of public school systems in the south during this reconstruction.
800 black men served as state legislators around the south with blacks making up a majority in the SC HR.
Free blacks in SC, VA, and La were wealthy and educated.
A. Dubclet of La, and W. Breedlove of Va., owned slaved before the civil war, while people like James D. Porter from Ga (taught slaves how to read).
General William T. Sherman issued Special Field Order No. 15 where GA and SC were set aside for freedpeople, but this did not pan out.
1866 land that ex-Confederates had left behind was given to the freedpeople.
Freedmen Bureau said just kidding this idea about giving land isn’t going to work so just be a slave again.
Freedpeople wanted freedom to control their families.
emphasis on education
classroom size: 50
recreated religious worlds based on their desires socially and spiritually.
Baptist became the fastest growing post-emancipation denomination, where they carried on the struggle for black political participation.
North and South tensions about how to run worship
South: less formal
Nannie Helen Burroughs and Virginia Broughton were leaders who fought against sexual violence from white men.
Black churches gave space for conflict over gender roles, cultural values, practices, norms, and politics.
With the ex-slaves gaining rights with the help of the Loyal League (ran by women) it was time for women to gain rights. Elizabeth Cady Staton wanted “equal rights for all” and in 1866 the National Women’s Rights Convention merged with the American Antislavery Society to create the AERA.
Division in 1837 because as Stanton, Susan B. Anthony and AERA were advocating for blacks and women suffrage, the AERA took advantage of their opportunity and distanced themselves from the women’s suffrage piece.
Anthony and Stanton teamed up with white supremacists who believed in women’s rights.
After 15th amendment “sex” was ignored, AERA dissolved, Stanton and Anthony created the National Woman Suffrage Association.
1868-1872 700 women registered to vote.
Women’s suffrage supporters: mainly located in the north
white southern women: did the man’s job
black women: embraced freedoms
Ladies Memorial Association: women that memorialized their husband and praised their husband through nationalist speeches and memorials.
Black women wanted more control over their labor.
Apprenticeships were offered to place African American children in unpaid labor positions but, African American women opposed.
May 1, 1865 (aa) in Charleston created the precursor to Memorial Day by mourning the Union dead buried on a race track.
Violence was used to make blacks work and follow antebellum pd. rules.
Types of violence:
riots against black political authority
Most notable: Memphis and New Orleans in 1866
organized vigilante groups
Whites participated in hate crimes against blacks for minor disputes with no punishment.
Vigilante groups or Nightriders or Bushwhackers
harassed black candidates, office holders, scared voters from the polls and frightened freed people who wanted to buy land.
KKK organized in 1866 in Pulaski, TN and had spread to every state of the former Confederacy by 1868.
Panola County, MS, between August 1870 and December 1872, 24 Klan-style murders
violence aimed at uppity blacks who had tried to buy land or dared to be insolent and Republicans
Enforcement Acts passed btw 1870-71: it was a crime to deprive aa of civil rights
it was rebellious if a violent klan act was cast on freed people.
Troops could be involved to protect the freed people
1876: home rule
A town established in 1887: Mound Bayou, MS owned by aa’s.
Northerners could buy from a variety of areas.
From 1861 and on the South had a difficult time, financially, because they could not build back up to the position they were in without slaves and trade with Europe.
1862: 1st national income tax
Post war in the south: planters broke up large farms into smaller plots to single families for a portion of the crop = sharecropping.
Freedom empowered aa’s but whites in the south still got away with discriminatory acts of violence toward blacks.
White-capping: poor whites in a mob that would scare blacks away from jobs.
some blacks were unable to buy their own land so they sharecropped.
Morrill Land Grant created colleges: University of California, Illinois, and Wisconsin
With the creation of the National Banking System and the greenbacks, it helped accelerate trade and exchange
1868-77 interest in reconstruction declined
The largest threats to republicans were violence and intimidation by white conservatives.
The Presidential election of 1876: Repub. Rutherford B. Hayes won in exchange for w/d fed. troops.
New Departure Democrats gained momentum. They focused on:
They won over the white democrats by saying that the government will be run by locals.
ended reconstruction in TN, VA, and GA
September 1873: Jay Cooke and Co. declared bankruptcy = Depression of 1873
This economic turmoil allowed Democrats to take over the House of Reps. after the election of 1874.
(1876) Grant admin. was helpless and not much use.
(1875) Demos. in MS created the MS Plan which was violence that would suppress black voters. Republicans did not intervene.
Hayes (R) vs Tilden (D)
There was fraud found with the votes in 3 states: La, SC, and FL. A special electoral commission voted in favor of Hayes (8 for Hayes, and 7 for Tilden).
There was a lot of bickering about the results of the election and the Republicans were in fear of another sectional crisis that they reached out to the Democrats.
Compromise of 1877: Democrats accept the loss if the troops leave the south. (It was accepted)
Salinan people = bald eagle story
Lenape people = Sky woman
Choctaw = Mother Mound
Nahua = 7 caves
Natives made it to North America because of massive ice sheets that allowed them to cross over.
Some crossed along the Pacific coast
Corn was relied on heavily.
The first sentence below is not quite right. I think what is meant is that industrialists appealed to people’s desire for novelty and comfort. That is how industrialists profited. People didn’t profit.
Industrialists appealed to people’s profits. Evangelists appealed to people’s morals.
Spelling mistake: ‘Much to Falwell’s delight, conservative Americans did, in fact, stand against and defat the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)’. Should be defeat not defat.
Slight typo here caught by one of my high school students. In the first sentence it should read, “By the end of the war, more than 4.7 million American men had served in all branches of the military…”
The market revolution economically depended upon not just free-labor factories in the but also slave-labor plantations in the south.
*not just free-labor factories in the north, but also slave-labor plantations in the south.
-keep alternating between “North” and “north” here you switch between “Northern masters” to “northern states”
-in paragraph 28 you have a sentence that reads “The growth of abolition in the north and the acceleration of slavery in the South created growing divisions between North and South.”
-like I’m not claiming to be an expert on these things, and there is a lot of wiggle room with the capitalization of proper nouns but like, I feel like which ever choice you make should be applied consistently throughout.
“Battles emerged over the westward expansion of slavery” feels a bit repetitive since the previous sentence just introduced this idea. Perhaps talk out in this sentence or combine the two sentences.
For example: “Westward expansion brought with it conflicts over the growth of slavery and questions about the federal government’s role in protecting the interests of slaveholders.”
“Enslaved laborers meanwhile remained vitally important to the nation’s economy, fueling not only the Southern plantation economy but also providing raw materials for the industrial North.”
“Differences over the fate of slavery” ->”Differences in opinion over what the fate of slavery should be” or something along those lines.
“After decades of conflict Americans began to fear that the opposite side of the country had seized control of the government.”
“During the secession crisis that followed, nearly a centuries worth of fears devolved into war in 1861.”
*The secession crisis that followed led to nearly a century’s worth of fears devolving into war in 1861.
The first two sentences can be combined into one sentence for example:
“Slavery’s history stretched back to antiquity and prior to the American Revolution it was accepted as a natural part of life. ”
“English colonies north and south relied on enslaved workers who grew tobacco, harvested indigo and sugar, and worked in ports.”
->north and south where? I’m assuming in the Americas but that is not introduced. It comes right after “everyone in the world accepted it [slavery] as a natural part of life” so I think it needs to mention what “English colonies north and south” you are talking about.
->”north and south” In previous paragraph there was consistent capitalization of North, South, Southern, Northern, Southerners, and Northerners. Like it works capitalized or not, but it should be consistent.
-> clunky wording
“These colonies generated tremendous wealth for the British crown, which fostered seemingly endless opportunities and boundless imaginations. ”
This was for the 2nd paragraph I must have clicked the wrong one somehow
The party leaders refusal
Making note of a typographical error: Du Bois’ name appears as DuBois in various places throughout the chapter.
My students LOVE the Yawp. ; )
But Americans were urged to action not only by books and magazines but by preachers (and) theologians, too.
The federal government possessed limited diplomatic tools with which to engage (in) international struggles for world power.
The United States (was) producing slightly more than one-third of the world’s manufactured goods, roughly equal to the outputs of France, Great Britain, and Germany combined.
When in March 1918 the Bolsheviks signed a separate peace treaty with Germany, the Allies planned to send troops to northern Russia and Siberia (to) prevent German influence and fight the Bolshevik revolution.
On paragraph 3 of Chapter 14, consider either leaving Douglas as a “pro-slavery moderate,” and delete the rest of the sentence, or explain more clearly that the people of the territories should decide whether or not they supported slavery in the territories. Students might not understand “popular sovereignty,” so it should be introduced first. You should probably explain how Breckinridge differed, at least saying that he had a very expansionistic view on slavery.
I think you mean all four (of the border states remaining in the Union).
Education equipped young women with the tools to live sophisticated, >>gentile<> genteel <<
This paragraph is all about the Southern states. Neglected are the Northern States, the merchants, the ships – slaves were shipped by them, and slave trading profits funded New England merchants, cities, factories, bequests for Yale and Brown Universities (for two). Faneuil Hall, for another example, was built by money from slave trading. Slavery was not a problem – as long as the slave trade continued. As the ending of the transatlantic trade was set in the Constitution, it was England that finally passed the bill in 1807 so that we Americans would not have the moral high ground. It was only after slavery became not profitable in the North, with most slaves having been sold South (many were not emancipated), that the slavery agitation had a chance of success.
I wonder if it would be useful to include a sentence or two on the events of 1946: the Soviet occupation of northern Iran, the exposure of ‘atom spies’ in the US and Canada, and the ‘international control’ efforts surrounding the atomic bomb (primarily the Baruch and Gromyko plans). This would help to provide a conceptual bridge to 1947 and aid understanding of how and why the Cold War emerges when it does.
Some more recent historiography may be of use here. In particular, I’m thinking of Campbell Craig and Frederick Logevall, America’s Cold War: The Politics of Insecurity (Cambridge: Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press, 2009) and Leffler’s For the Soul of Mankind: The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Cold War (New York: Hill and Wang, 2007)
It would be worth including a sentence on the limits of the Marshall Plan and what it actually permitted the countries of Western Europe to do. I’m thinking here of the recent scholarship by the likes of William Hitchcock (in vol 1 of the Cambridge History of the Cold War).
It would be worth pointing out that Korea helps to galvanise support for the NSC68 recommendations.
Thinking more widely, would there be interest in paragraph here that addresses the US covert operations programmes form 1947 onwards? The intervention by the State Department and the CIA in the 1948 Italian election and the 1949 onwards (disastrous though there were) BG FIEND operations in Albania set the tone for future Cold war covert ops. They also give lie to Truman’s insistence that he was not involved in such activities.
In the first sentence, ‘nuclear’ should be replaced with ‘atomic’ for accuracy. This helps to emphasise the manifest differences between the atom bomb and the hydrogen bomb. I’d also suggest changing the third sentence to “The Soviets accelerated their research, which was in part helped by the efforts of the ‘atom spies’ such as Klaus Fuchs.” This nuances the point a little more, as the Soviets were going to get the bomb anyway. The spy material simply obviated the need for certain developmental stages.
Perhaps add Alice L George, Awaiting Armageddon: How Americans face the Cuban Missile Crisis (Chapel Hill: university of North Carolina Press, 2003) and Tracy C. Davis, Stages of Emergency: Cold War Nuclear Civil Defense (Durham: Duke University Press, 2007)
The Team B exercise wasn’t quite commissioned by the CIA. It was forced upon the agency by key members of the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFAIB) who gained the approval of key figures in the Ford administration, such as National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft. Many within the CIA saw the PFAIB (and the Team B exercise) as a threat. see for example David C. Engerman, Know Your Enemy: The Rise and Fall of America’s Soviet Experts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 279-283.
The Republicans ran William McKinley, an economic conservative that who championed business interests…
…a policy in which the United States would have to the right to unilaterally…
-Eliminate the word ‘to’
I’m using American Yawp for the first time this year. I greatly appreciate this resource, as I’ve been looking for an option like this. I do hope, though, that you consider updating the civil rights section. The coverage of the civil rights movement in American Yawp is at least 15 years behind the field.
American emigrants move westward pushing Natives further and further west. Creating conflict and pushing slavery out of the way, the Civil War paves the way for trains.
I am using the American Yawp for my history courses this fall. While the information is wonderful, the organization of this chapter (and many others) needs to be reconsidered. Information about specific topics, such as gender and/or labor, are scattered throughout the chapter and are difficult to follow. It might be helpful to provide more specific section headings throughout each chapter.
typo: “set in”, not “set it”
Note 2 typos in citations
double dots “..”
“These totem poles” –> “Totem poles”
refusal of party leaders, or party leaders’ refusal
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The caption for this image doesn’t make sense. The date is 1867, but the 15th Amendment won’t be ratified until so these men are likely voting because of The Reconstruction Act of 1867–or PERHAPS in anticipation of the 14th Amendment, section 2.
A bit more on the Freedmen’s Bureau, perhaps.
Who created it
When it fades out.
As it is, the wording makes it sound like the reader should already know about it.
If the student is starting with Reconstruction chapter, wouldn’t hurt to say
After the Civil War ended in early April 1865,
or something to give an anchor.
Not sure why you have a parenthetical citation here–it would seem to call for a footnote.
Can you double check on the founding date for WTUL. I believe the national body was founded in 1903 — although it is possible that local branch was started in 1905.
And, although working women were a significant part of the group—so were elite “allies”–both for support and as places of internal conflict.
Check, but I think Florida was first with a poll tax in 1889
I think you want to add a phrase that grandfather clause worked because it “ensured that whites who would have been otherwise excluded–through poll taxes or literacy tests–would still be eligible.”
The bit about Neil McMillen should be a footnote as should Perman rather than a parenthetical citation,.
Sorry I see I misread how the formatting was working for McMillen and Perman
in the African American’s long history
or African Americans’ long history
in African American’s
The average student will not know what the New Deal coalition is–it has not been defined by that term elsewhere in the chapter
Is it really possible to talk about Reconstruction and NOT mention the impeachment of Andrew Johnson? I am a social historian, and I am certainly more interested in daily lives of people. But that was kind of a big deal (and was connected to his efforts to not advance the situation of African Americans).
For the side bar on the petition for universal suffrage/–women would not get the vote for more than half a DECADE or half a CENTURY??
SOmething is off in the wording.
Double check the point that federal troops were ordered out of the South. I believe they remained–training basis etc. but the promise was that they would not be used to enforce federal laws against the white South,
Presumably Julie Richter, Cara Rogers?
Should be “reenslaved.”
Although American Yawp is about America History, stating the reason of Russia Czar reign’s collapse is impelling. Just shortly stating that “the regime of Czar Nicholas II collapsed in Russia leading to a bolscevik revolution” explains what led to the regime’s fall.
Sorry if I’m so picky, but Eastern Europe is COOL 🙂
ronald reagan is a llama
Just a minor spelling error change to something along the lines of “She was a migrant, having left her home in Oklahoma to follow the crops in the Golden State.” Only a minor missing word.
I’m pretty sure this is supposed to be WRB, not the WPB. However I am not sure, it is rather confusing.
Because I’m using this in a survey course, I would like to see sentences such as this –” It was a peculiar scene, and a lesson for southern activists.” explained. These types of passages are good places to have a discussion, but in the interest in directing students to think historically, would benefit from a more concrete explanation. Why did the author regard the scene as peculiar and what was the lesson drawn?. (Similarly earlier chapters occasionally note that a particular action “changed things forever.” The reader would like to know what the specific implications might be.)
[The same drought that plagued the Pueblo also likely effected the Mississippian peoples of the American Midwest and South. ]
This should be AFFECTED, not effected.
[Native American slavery was not based not on holding people as property]
This is a double negative- eliminate the second “not.”
I’m surprised at the non-treatment of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the development Joseph Ellis in his 2016 book calls “orchestrating the second American Revolution.” Well worth attention for text and further reading, with the exception of some snide portions of Ellis’s intro where he clumsily takes on “progressive” historians, esp. Merrill Jensen, whose thesis Ellis essentially follows. See also Jensen’s (a longtime UW historian) presidential address in a 1970 issue of the JAH. I know that political history has, unfortunately, fallen out of favor, but still….)
A very worthy project, good luck.
rick james bitch
On line: Committees of that monitored merchants and residents…
But then again they are the same
Brandon’s mom was responsible for clearing out the land for new settlers, wiping out the Indians, not the government. Please update this chapter
The chapter doesn’t seem to introduce the 15th amendment. It discusses it in the segment on “Reconstruction and Women,” and has two visual with subtitles that reference it, but otherwise there is no mention of it. I wonder if you might consider having a brief paragraph on it, perhaps in between paragraph 17 (beginning “In the 1868 Presidential election” and paragraph 18 (the visual of an African American man voting).
My students are quite appreciative of having a free textbook for this course, and I am appreciative of the narrative style of the text.
Spellcheck: Neshoba County Fair (not “Count”)
“Sexual preference” should be replaced with “sexual orientation.”
The Germantown Protest indicates that Quakers had difficulty w/ slavery not only because of the violence involved but because the institution violated the very foundation of their faith – the Inner Light. Inner Light theology holds that the spirit (or light) of God dwells within all people. The Germantown Friends believed that this was a major problem. (See transcription of the document on the website above.) Quakers will work for almost a century to to end the practice of slave ownership among their membership.
Sugar Act 1764 was a tax cut. It reduced the tax established by the Molasses Act of 1733. Tax was cut from 6p. to 3p. per gallon on sugar or molasses imported from other European countries’ colonies. Despite the tax cut, Parliament expected greater revenue through increased consumption and better/ stronger/ structer enforcement of the law.
Quaker Inner Light theology – the belief that the spirit of God dwells within all – is the foundation of the concept of “equality of souls.”
this sentence might need to be more clear:
Different taxation schemes implemented across the colonies between 1763 and 1774 placed duties on items like tea, paper, molasses, and stamps for almost every kind of document.
“implemented across the colonies” might make it seem that the colonial legislatures were doing this. It might be good to remind the reader again that Parliament was doing this. Also “stamps for almost every kind of document” is somewhat unclear. Law required a special tax stamp be affixed to almost every kind of legal or official document.
In Philadelphia, threats against the captain of the Tea ship (the Polly) kept the tea from even being landed.
this line isn’t really accurate for a couple reasons
The Constitution counted each black individual as three-fifths of a person
it was five _slaves_ counted as three free men
the Constitution states “three fifths of all other Persons” – _not_ three-fifths of a person
Slave trade resumed – after it fell off during the Revolutionary War. Might be important to remind readers of that. Also, it might be important to remind readers that outlawing the overseas slave trade is part of the US Constitution – Article I, Section 9.
it might be good to remind readers that Morse invented the telegraph
it’s not the tree itself but the wood from the tree that’s tough/ durable. it was highly prized for tool handles
The use of “his cabinet” in this story is really unnecessarily vague and misleading. It’s the Secretary of the Treasury who Jackson turned to for this assignment. However, when Jackson directed his Secretary of the Treasury to remove the federal government deposits of gold from the Second Bank of the US, the Secretary refused and Jackson fired him. The Assistant Secretary of the Treasury also refused Jackson’s request. Jackson fired him, too. President Jackson appointed his Attorney General, Roger B. Taney, to be new Secretary of the Treasury. Taney removed the gold and stopped depositing any further federal funds in the Second Bank of the US.
the infusion of federal government monies into poorly regulated small state banks helped fuel this boomlet, too.
Why does the word wards have to be in quotes? Maybe voting districts or neighborhoods might be better?
“violent pattern of growth” might be misconstrued by readers. Maybe something different like tobacco is a what farmers call a “heavy feeder” ? Tobacco is an aggressive feeder? Tobacco rapidly exhausted the soil of nutrients? Tobacco planters “mined the soil” as their crop rapidly took the nutrients out of the soil which meant that farmers then needed new lands for tobacco cultivation?
It might help, too, to remind readers that there were no commercial fertilizers available and southern farmers rarely employed improved farming techniques like saving and applying animal manure to the soil to enrich it so planters regularly sought new lands for tobacco production.
New scholarship indicates it wasn’t a Dutch ship. See, for example:
Walker was captured by a coalition army from the Central American states and executed
This is handy but not correct:
In Article 1, Section 2, for example, the Constitution enabled representation in the South to be based on rules defining enslaved people as 3/5 of a voter, meaning southern white men would be overrepresented in Congress.
It is 3/5 of the total number of slaves in the state. The group that wrote the Constitution didn’t have the concept that a slave was 3/5 of a white person.
no apostrophe in Harpers Ferry
A detachment of US Marines under Colonel Robert E. Lee crushed the revolt before it had a chance to develop any further.
It might be helpful to tell the reader just what Lincoln did to push the South into firing the first shot. “Acting on his constitutional mandate” is too vague.
no capitals for federal government
Susquehannocks were west and south of Lenape country
The last sentence of paragraph 63 either makes no sense or is very confusing. “McCarthy had hardly alone.”
Good for essay
There is a phrase towards the end of this paragraph that states, “By 1790, four years after the ratification of the Constitution,…”
The modifier “four years after the ratification of the Constitution” doesn’t seem right given that the Constitution was written in 1787. and the Rhode Island didn’t vote to ratify the Constitution until 1790.
The last sentence states that Black Kettle was killed during the Sand Creek Massacre. He survived the massacre but was later killed at the Washita River in 1868.
Typo on the second line; says “Townhend duties”, should be “Townshend”.
(First sentence) “not only held” instead of “not held”
crossed an entire
On the second line “Habsburgs” is misspelled.
The statement that the British perceived German naval build-up as a threat is, although commonly believed, a falsehood. Concern over German naval build-up primarily came in waves from the sensationalist press, but these scares were primarily caused by navalists who wished to increase funding for the Royal Navy. In 1905, the director of British naval intelligence described British naval superiority over the Germans as “overwhelming”. In October of 1906, the permanent under-secretary of the British Foreign Office, Charles Hardinge, stated that Germany posed no immediate naval threat the Great Britain. Foreign secretary Edward Grey, arguably the most important player in British pre-war foreign affairs, stated in November 1907 that “We shall have 7 dreadnoughts afloat before they have one/ In 1910, they will have four to our seven, but between now and then there is plenty of time to lay down new ones if they do so”. In 1914, the year the war broke out, Britain’s navy actually INCREASED its lead over the Germans, who never even came close to reaching Admiral Tirpitz’s goal of a 1/1.5 strength ratio. This was why the Germans relied so heavily on submarines during the war, as their navy simply didn’t come close in strength to effectively engage the British fleet.
Serbia had much more to do with the start of the war than Austria-Hungary did. Throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Serbia was looking to expand its boarders in order to recreate the “Greater Serbia” of old. In fact, Serbia in many ways viewed Austria-Hungary as a dying empire (as all of Europe did at the time), ripe for the picking. The Black Hand, the organization that Princip worked for, was run by the Serbia head of military intelligence, a man known as Apis, who had played a major role in the murder of the Serbian King and Queen in 1903. It is also extremely likely that the President of Serbia at the time, Nikola Pašić, was also involved. Hr was given warning of the upcoming attempt and chose to close off the border only once the assassins had safely made it across. He also told the Austro-Hungarian ambassador that there was likely to be an attempt, but he did it so vaguely that the threats were never taken seriously. Pašić, a Serbian nationalist and himself, new that the assassination of the heir to the throne would lead to war, and he knew he had Russian backing, meaning that the assassination would be the perfect opportunity for Serbia to take lands, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina, from the Austrians while looking like the assaulted party. On top of this, the Austrians desperately tried to minimize the repercussions of a war declaration against Serbia and went out of their way to get assurances from numerous major powers that their cause was justified and that their would be no foreign interference. They also sent Serbia an ultimatum that, although was essentially unacceptable, would have prevented the outbreak of war entirely if Serbia had agreed.
It’s merely a grammatical error, but the fourth sentence reads “‘Meat will no longer be killed and vegetables no longer grown, except by savages,” Edison promise.'”, but it should read “Edison promised.”
Where it says “(see chapter 18)” near the bottom, I’m fairly sure it should say “(see chapter 16)”.
I feel was though the term “Indians” for describing Native Americans should be deemed unsuitable. The Native Americans were not “Indians” they were called this term because of Christopher Columbus. He was on a journey to find a western sea route to India, but somehow ended up in the Americas, and therefore he thought the people of this land were the Indians, and that term stuck ever since.
Second line says “Freedmen Bureau” where it means “Freedmen’s Bureau.” Also, paragraphs 27 and 28 are inconsistent in using “freedpeople” as a single word or “freed people” as two words.
In the second sentence:
There shouldn’t be a comma after “movement” and “northerners” should be ” northerners’ ” (possessive).
Just needs another zero, I think.
The second to last sentence should read “reuinted behind the imperatives *of* economic growth and territorial expansion.” It’s missing the word “of”.
I understand how many people believe that the term of Indian is unsuitable but there are still many members of many tribes who use this terminology. The Native American/American Indian/Amer-Indian/Indian debate still rages. It is very similar to African American / Black debate. I guess the terminology should be fixed at the beginning with an explanation of why the term to be used was picked.
[Yet Addams was an upper class white Protestant women who had faced limits]
The correct form of “women” should be the singular form “woman” because the adjectives “upper class (or upper-class),” “white,” and “Protestant” describe “Addams,” the singular subject.
[meeting the standards of 50 separate state regulatory laws.]
At this time, there were only 30-some states.
However, I only know of Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois having Granger laws in effect. This severely affects the argument of too much restraint upon the railroads. I imagine the railroads saw this as a growing trend that could soon expand to all the states and threaten their economic welfare.
It would be nice to have links to access primary sources related to these topics.
Naming the first chapter “The New World” while showing a picture of the people who had been living in this old world for generations, millenia even, points to a form of erasure that prioritizes history from the European viewpoint. Yes it was new to the invaders, but it wasn’t new to the original inhabitants, how can we centralize that point? I would suggest changing the name of this chapter to “A New World to Some, Old to Others” or something along those lines.
I would refrain from the use of the term “New World” altogether. These areas have names and labels that weren’t derived from invaders and their understandings of the place.
Consider revising some of the sentences for grammar and punctuation.
>4,100,000 million men
Please revise this to either “4.1 million men” or “4,100,000 men.”
August 7, 2017 at 4:42 pm
See in context
July 30, 2017 at 3:23 am
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