The Columbian Exchange consisted of people, animals, plants, and microbes.
This caused Ten thousand years of geographic separation, inaugurated centuries of violence, unleashed the greatest biological terror and revolutionized the history of the world.
People thought the first Americans were the Clovis people.
[ Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 Archaeologists and anthropologists, meanwhile, focus on migration histories. Studying artifacts, bones, and genetic signatures, these scholars have pieced together a narrative that claims that the Americas were once a “new world” for Native Americans as well.]
Columbian Exchange had good and negative aspects: it had widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, technology and ideas that could be from the Americas to the Old World, in relation to colonization, trade. But the down fall was we wiped out entire populations by war and disease.
The statement in the last sentence of this paragraph, “It was God’s will, he said,” is a completely inaccurate summary of the cited journal entry.
Creation and migration: History of the first Americans started with the tells of Sky woman who fell onto Turtle Island/ North America. South Easterns’ beginings started in Mississippi Valley specifically in the Seven Caves,this was all before they migrated to New Mexico.
I would add something about the expulsion of the Jews to this sentence: “The Crusades had never ended in Iberia: the Spanish crown concluded centuries of intermittent warfare–the Reconquista–by expelling Muslim Moors [and the Jews] from the Iberian peninsula in 1492, just as Columbus sailed west. With new power, these new nations–and their newly empowered monarchs–yearned to access the wealth of Asia.
…seeking land, gold, and titles would sound better I think.
The usage of the term “capitalist” and its cognates like capitalism perhaps need some explaining. The term is typically used today as a synonym of free markets, but the European colonial powers had anything but free markets. Mercantilist policies are not synonymous with free markets by definition, a definition conveniently explained in Paragraph 43 of this chapter. The state-assisted nature of mercantilism precludes it from being a free market in any strict sense. Thus, I would argue that the use of the term capitalism is somewhat misleading. Only the broadest sense of the term–that capital is being employed–could the term be appropriated used here, and yet that isn’t the commonly understood use of the term.
Actual free markets presume the Rule of Law and free agents exchanging as they see fit. Slaves simply do not fit into the liberal concept of free markets as understood at the time thanks to Smith, Grotius, and other Enlightenment philosophers. A government-assisted or government-dominated system of exchange that supports slavery is nothing like this. It would be helpful to include some economic history at this juncture to explain the competing theories and practices as they arose in the 17th century and 18th century.
There is a typo in the very first sentence of the introduction. “pecf” should be “of.”
Typo “pecf” instead of “of.
Useful information but it takes an extremely long time to read! There is too much unnecessary details, please shorten it. This goes for every chapter in the book.
“other thirteen colonies?”‘ What was New England?
The authors try to hard to make it dramatic and make the flashback dates too difficult to follow.
How is the “form it took” a contradiction?
Grammatical error in the 4th sentence, “…threats to the British liberties they saw as a their birthright.”
Jefferson’s Notes were first published in 1785, not 1787. His comment about racial war is being badly misrepresented here: rather than encouraging white slaveowners to remain “vigilant,” he wrote this sentence to encourage emancipation and colonization. See Peter Onuf, “‘To Declare Them a Free and Independant People’: Race, Slavery, and National Identity in Jefferson’s Thought.” Journal of the Early Republic 18, no. 1 (April 1, 1998): 1–46. Additionally, I recommend citing a scholarly edition of the Notes, rather than this more obscure 1832 printing. The most recent is Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, ed. Frank Shuffelton (New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1999), 145.
A more accurate way of phrasing this could be:
As early as 1785, Thomas Jefferson wrote in his Notes on the State of Virginia that slaves should be freed, but then they should be colonized to another country, where they could become an “independant people.” White people’s prejudices, and black people’s “recollections…of the injuries they have sustained” under slavery, would keep the two races from successfully living together in America. If freed slaves were not colonized, eventually there would be “convulsions which will probably never end but in the extermination of the one or the other race.” ((Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, ed. Frank Shuffelton (New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1999), 145.))
(The phrase “two warring nations” is not found in Jefferson’s Notes. )
It would be good to include a small section on the development of the first two-party system in this chapter within the discussion of the ratification debate and the first Washington administration, rather than just mentioning it within the conclusion. It would help contextualize the political debate between Jefferson’s vision and Hamilton’s vision.
The first sentence doesn’t make sense. is it supposed to be Americans had lost confidence in President Adams? They had let him know it.
I think that is a typo for crowds
Take the n off of American.
Most African Americans already gained their freedom in the Civil War.
Chopin’s novel is The Awakening, not The Great Awakening.
Typo on third line. Should be “operated in a single state.”
Most of the material in this paragraph does not support the paragraph’s first sentence that asserts Harding’s corruption because of the way the second sentence is phrased. The second sentence would work much better if “for instance” were replaced with “to be sure.” The examples such as Wallace, Hoover, and Mellon belie the paragraph’s main point but are presented as examples of Harding’s corruption.
It would be great to expand on the other half of the UFW with specific individuals representing the Filipino farm workers, particularly Larry Itliong and Philip Vera Cruz, who are both garnering greater recognition in California. While no where near as well known as Chavez, these two figures were nearly as instrumental at the movement’s successes. A great resource for this is “Delano Manongs,” a documentary outlining the Filipino farm labor movement and its part in the Delano Grape Strike. Thank you for your amazing work on this text.
September 21, 2017 at 4:00 pm
See in context
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