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  • 01. The New World (106 comments)

    • Comment by Joshua L Freeman on September 5, 2018

      The source is mislabeled as “brooked beak of heaven” and should be fixed.

      Comment by Jesse Adelman on September 7, 2018

      This suggestion will likely just seem excessively nit-picky. In regards to the “[n]o America city, in fact, would match Cahokia’s peak population levels…” statement. Although it is somewhat implicitly stated in previous statement”north of modern-day Mexico,” the use of America in the aforementioned sentence only to refer to present day USA and Canada could cause a little confusion. As the writers of this resource I’ve had the pleasure of discovering recently probably already know, the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had a size on par with that of Constantinople. Such a fact is likely included in many cite-able sources. The one where I had found it would be The Cambridge Economic History of Latin America: Volume 1, The Colonial Era and the Short Nineteenth Century by Coatsworth, Bulmer-Thomas, and Cortes-Conde.

      Thank you for the great work you’ve done with this website. I was never very interested in North American history until I had found this resource!

      Comment by Kristin Mann on October 2, 2018

      Poverty Point would be an excellent addition to this paragraph, or as part of a paragraph on trade in early America. http://www.povertypoint.us/

      Comment by Saleha Tahir on October 12, 2018

      Sentence two states “Europeans rediscovered or adopted Greek, Roman and Muslim knowledge.” That makes no sense. You can not rediscover anything. Europeans blatantly STOLE knowledge, & ideas & accredited it as their own. This is very misleading & should be changed considering that you have a very large audience viewing this textbook.

      Comment by Scarlet on January 17, 2019

      Role of women

      Comment by Scarlet on January 17, 2019

      The Enslavement of Native Americans.

      Comment by Scarlet on January 17, 2019

      End of Civilization

      Comment by Scarlet on January 17, 2019

      Lenape Women

      Comment by Scarlet on January 23, 2019

      Three Sisters

      Comment by Scarlet on January 23, 2019

      Matrilineal Ancestry

      Comment by Sean Dinces on January 28, 2019

      The first two sentences are poorly constructed and repetitive (e.g., word “unleashed” is used repetitively in the first two sentences). Possible rewrite:

      “Europeans’ ‘discovery’ of America unleashed waves of destructive exploitation underwritten by murder, greed, and slavery.”

      Comment by Sean Dinces on January 28, 2019

      The first two sentences are poorly constructed and repetitive (e.g., word “unleashed” is used repetitively in the first two sentences). Possible rewrite:
      “Europeans’ ‘discovery’ of America unleashed waves of destructive exploitation underwritten by murder, greed, and slavery.”

      Comment by Allison A Astarita on February 6, 2019


      **decline in health

      **produced more foods

      **pusured other skills

      **people were able to do other things rather then just make food

      Comment by Benjamin Cohen on March 2, 2019

      Sistema de Castas, not Casas

      Comment by Juan M. Galvan on March 13, 2019

      This sixteenth century drawing depicts the Spanish and their Tlaxcalan allies fighting against the Purépecha, not the Aztec. The text on this image includes “guzmã,” which stands for “Nuño de Guzmán,” the Spanish conquistador who crushed the Purépecha, who were the people of “michuacá,” which is today’s Michoacán, in western Mexico.

      Comment by Michael McCormick on April 9, 2019

      The site at Buttermilk Creek, Texas, dated at roughly 15,500 years ago, predates both Monte Verde and the Florida site mentioned and might be cited as an example of a much earlier date for human activity.

      Comment by Daniel on April 18, 2019

      One of the main reasons for the shift from the ecomienda system to the repartimiento was the papal encyclical delivered by Pope Paul III in 1537 and adopted by the Spanish monarchy, the Sublimus Dei. Which stated that the Native Americans “are by no means to be deprived of their liberty or the possession of their property…nor should they be in any way enslaved…” This

      Comment by Ryan on May 1, 2019

      This paragraph is rather disingenuous.  Not one source in entire paragraph to support these claims.  So many qualifiers in every statement without one specific instance of any tribe/people/group, anywhere in America who practiced sexual liberation and care-free divorces.  Five thousand plus years of Native American history where mass human sacrifice and territorial fighting and raids were commonplace surely also saw many machismo tribes and polygamy was probably common among warring tribes where women were taken as brides by the victors.

      Comment by Jeffrey Yoham on May 11, 2019

      Europeans CAN rediscover that knowledge if it was known previously but was lost. That’s the whole point of the word “rediscover”. Europeans can also learn and adapt from others (Greeks, Romans, Muslims). Human beings adopt superior ideas and knowledge, that is a universal trait for all cultures and societies. It is unfair to attribute bad intent upon one massive group for no other reason then irrational dislike for them.

      Comment by Jeffrey Yoham on May 11, 2019

      The book should make a distinction between Columbus and the conquistadors and colonists that came after him. Columbus never killed any natives and had constantly warned the men under his command to not enact violence on them. Bartolomé de Las Casas book was written in 1542 (published in 1552), decades after Columbus died in 1506. de Las Casas admired Columbus, who his father sailed with to the New World on Columbus’s second voyage (1493). It is unfair to place Columbus in a disparaging and inaccurate light and connect him to the cruelty others had wrought on the natives. A helpful source on Christopher Columbus comes from Carol Delaney, Professor of Anthropology who wrote a book on Columbus called: Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem (2011).

      Comment by Myron Paine on June 24, 2019

      Native Americans were Catholics, who spoke Norse.  Therir ancestors were NOT in America until the Mississippian Culture, wich is dated from AD 800.

      Comment by Gaunet Nina on July 23, 2019


      I only noticed the S in people(s), (l.8) that should maybe be removed

      I have just begun reading this, and it is very well done, thank you.


      Comment by Samuel Bein on August 2, 2019

      There is absolutely no evidence that any Aztecs believed Cortés to be Quetzalcoatl. He bragged in his letters to Charles V of Spain that the native Aztecs were gullible and told such tall tales, but the majority of Mesoamericanist scholars reject his side of the story.


      Comment by Alexander Maldonado on August 20, 2019

      [bridged more than ten thousand years of geographic separation]

      This implies that there was communication and altercations before ten thousand years when in reality Europeans have not made contact with Native Americans in history until this point. So “more than ten thousand years” should in reality be a lot more

      Comment by Edward Hashima on August 22, 2019

      Interesting that the title of the chapter is The New World when in the very first sentences the authors note that is a misconception and misnomer. Why not follow the lead of historians such as Daniel Richter and refer to the “ancient” Americas or use a similar concept?

      Comment by Crystal Shepard on August 28, 2019

      Native Americans lived and developed governing systems within their own beliefs and knowledge of the Americas before the Europeans “discovered” their new world.  Before their arrival and greedy mindset brought disease, separation and segregation and slavery to the Americas.  Similar tactics were in place however were more humane toward both humans and animals.

      Comment by Crystal Shepard on August 28, 2019

      Native American stories of how the earth was created by their indigenous belief systems.  The broad scope of the stories aren’t much different than religious mindset.  Both have similar outcomes with different story line.  Archaeologist and anthropologist focus on a scientific study of artifacts, bones, genetic signatures tell their own story to give a similar timeline with scientific evidence.

      Comment by Crystal Shepard on August 28, 2019

      Through evidence collected after the global ice age between 12 and 20,000 years ago was when human hunter gatherers traveled in small groups as means of survival in the new land of Asia and America.

      Comment by Crystal Shepard on August 28, 2019

      The was a division of native group that understood the vast benefits of their surroundings.  Those in the NW had salmon filled rivers.  Plains and prairie, deserts, and forest the cultures were as different as their environment.

      Comment by Crystal Shepard on August 28, 2019

      Mesoamericans relied on maize/corn for survival and this began the agriculture.  North America continues to hold the importance of those that began the development and sustainability of North America.

      Comment by Veronica Riddle on September 3, 2019

      If they were so good at surviving, then how come they didn’t live into their 100’s?

      Comment by Jessica Marck on September 9, 2019

      That’s a keen observation; I guess they author’s intention is to appeal to the perspective of the European settlers, but being a valued historical textbook, they probably should have opted for a more objective title. I agree…I wonder why they chose that approach.

      Comment by 0102 on October 1, 2019

       The first Dutch and Swedish settlers who encountered the Lenapes in the seventeenth century recognized Lenape prosperity and quickly sought their friendship. Their lives came to depend on it.

      Comment by Paul Wallig on November 20, 2019

      Spain settled into their new empire.  

      Agreement of antecedent and pronoun would be

      “Spain settled into its new empire.”  OR

      The Spanish settled into their new empire.”

      Comment by Paul Wallig on November 20, 2019

       Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca joined the Narváez expedition to Florida a decade later but was shipwrecked and forced to embark on a remarkable multiyear odyssey across the Gulf of Mexico and Texas into Mexico. 

      A better wording would be “along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico”


      Comment by Duran on December 6, 2019

      Goats were native to Eurasia. How is this possible pre-contact?

      Comment by Alexander Perdomo on December 21, 2019

      Agriculture was able to set the foundation of society. This allowed people to diversify themselves and put their abilities to their best use possible. This not only set the foundation for this time period but, for more to come. Today we see the youth trying to follow their parents’ footsteps and, this began behavior was set years ago, according to the text since people pursued their own activities that intrigued them. Allowing farmers to produce food also let society use their minds differently and independently.

      Comment by Alexander Perdomo on December 21, 2019

      It is unreal how the Puebloans’ knew how to celebrate life and start a religious ceremony that would be carried down from generation to generation. with the resources given to them at the time, they knew how to convert those resources into an environment that is sustainable. It felt like for anyone during this time period they would be living in caves or huts not in complexes. The Puebloan people knew how to come together and they understood that together, they could accomplish goals for having a better community.

      Comment by Alexander Perdomo on December 21, 2019

      Native Americans had a right to their land and in keeping it. The Europeans had no place in trying to colonize it for their own. However, during this time of expansion they were eager to control more land throughout the world. Why was world domination so important during these times when there could have been peace?

      Comment by Michael Smith on December 22, 2019

      25 percent is too low for an estimate of the death rate for the Black Death. Modern estimates generally range from 30 to 50 percent.

      Comment by Jamie Starling on December 29, 2019

      The thesis that “maybe” some Aztecs believed Cortés to be the god Quetzalcoatl is a little more complex than presented here. A central issue is that the translation of the Nahuatl term “teotl” as “god” as opposed to “spiritual being” (refer to Camilla Townsend’s work). The notion that the Aztecs regarded Cortés or the Spaniards as “gods” is not in first-hand accounts but later narratives. It is perhaps more apt to note that the Aztec and other Mesoamericans had a religious system that believed the world consisted of cycles of destruction and rebirth. The sudden, violent arrival of Spanish conquerors took place in this context. As for the  Spaniards’ “persuasion” of the Aztecs, two main factors there were strategic displays of violence (Cholula Massacre) and an alliance with Tlaxcala, a major rival of the Aztec Triple Alliance. In a sense, the Spanish invasion became a “Mesoamerican Civil War,” in which Spanish forces took sides with the Aztecs’ many rivals.

      Camilla Townsend, Burying the White Gods: New Perspectives on the Conquest of Mexico, The American Historical Review, Volume 108, Issue 3, June 2003, Pages 659–687, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/108.3.659

      Comment by Steven Gimber on January 3, 2020

      considering that the entire Delaware River Valley as the homeland of the Lenape, it might be better/ more accurate to say that the Susquehannock were located to the west and south rather than just south.  Also you might mention the the Minqua (Susquehannocks) were an Iroquoian people.

      Thank you for considering my suggestion

      Comment by Steven Frost on January 7, 2020

      The “three sisters” are mentioned, but there is no specific mention of what the “three sisters” are

      Comment by Tom Gordon on March 6, 2020

      “…inaugurated centuries of violence…”   The chapter has already stated that the native inhabitants had “warred with their neighbors.”  In this sense, violence had already been inaugurated. Perhaps “continued” is a better word choice than “inaugurated.”

      The releasing of “the greatest biological terror the world had ever seen”–while I agree that this was both “biological” and a “terror,” it seems that putting those two terms in such close proximity to each other drums up a sense of premeditation on the part of Europeans.

      Comment by Ashley Bauer on April 27, 2020

      Hi, I am a student ((the main reason I am reading your work)) I just thought you should know that placing citations in the middle of your work is pretty distracting. I think it would be best if you used superscript. Other then that your writing style is wonderful, it’s as if you are talking straight to me.



      Ashley Bauer

      Comment by Udit Parikh on June 9, 2020

      The “but” in Line 5 of paragraph 70 (“modern association between food and geography are but products of the Columbian…) should be changed to “by”.

      It should read “geography are by products of the Columbian Exchange”

      Comment by Peggy A Camp on June 18, 2020

      What the Aztecs did that most may not know is bring ‘chocolate’ , then many types of medicines from herbs and especially the passion flower which treated seizures, menopause ,burns, and even hysteria.

      Their skills in sports were also invented – popcorn.

      They were the leading in agriculture and taught draining and other ways to crop and drain swamps.

      Pyramids and templates and their hieroglyphic writing.

      Sports was big with them.

      Comment by MW on August 21, 2020

      The phrase “using hand tools rather than European-style plows” is rather poorly worded, as it suggests that the natives in the Eastern Woodlands were using European style plows. This is implied by the “but” at the beginning of the sentence as “but” is used as a contrast to something mentioned beforehand.

      Comment by Maria Hamblin on August 24, 2020


      They are referring to the core crops they depended on; corn, beans and squash per paragraph 11.

      Comment by Alyssa Jones on August 25, 2020

      I completely agree! The name somewhat threw me off but I understand what they were trying to do, This was how the world became a “New World”. i think..

      Comment by Eric Rodrigo Meringer on August 26, 2020

      The convention among Latin American historians these days is that the Aztecs did not see Cortes as Quetzalcoatl. The only evidence we have of the conquest from the time of the conquest is Cortes’ letters to the King and in those he does not make mention of this. This theory was put to rest with Camilla Townsend’s article “Burying the White Gods”. It is a Eurocentric interpretation.

      Comment by Riley Kellogg on August 28, 2020

      Chapter 1: illustration of Cahokia Mounds
      The link to the Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site is not workinghttp://www.cahokiamounds.org/

      It is not only on this page that it is not working; trying to locate the site via google yields the same, non-working link.

      Comment by Riley Kellogg on August 28, 2020

      The link seems to be working now.

      Comment by Carolyn Barral on September 5, 2020

      So here it is the first reading…I have to say I am intrigued with the reading…..not as bad as I thought it would be…..the title…I would call it the Beginning…..the new world……

      Comment by VG on September 6, 2020

      Yup, this should be re-captioned as the “crooked beak of heaven” mask.

      Comment by Grant M Jeffrey on September 22, 2020

      The Spanish phrase “Sistema de Castas” is used two paragraphs above, but, in this paragraph (64), it says “Sistema de Casas.” There is a letter “T” in one (castas/casas) and not the other. I assume this is a mistake.

      Comment by Kulin on October 22, 2020


      Comment by Dylan Barnes on January 24, 2021

      An oral account of a peoples history that is passed down through generations can sometimes be misconstrued through the ages.

      Comment by Dylan Barnes on January 24, 2021

      They had efficient means to hunt and farm that I wasn’t familiar with

      Comment by Dylan Barnes on January 24, 2021

      I didn’t know they planted tobacco back then I thought it was a newer crop.

      Comment by Dylan Barnes on January 24, 2021

      When did the sailors perfect the astrolabe?

      Comment by Dylan Barnes on January 24, 2021

      17 ships only held 1000 men? that seems like a small number ratio.

      Comment by Hillary Carlos on January 27, 2021

      They didn’t have modern medicine. Although they flourished in other components such as being able to have a food supply that may not run out. They may have encountered certain virus’ that led them to getting sick. Since this was way back they didn’t have the medicine we now have today to protect them from these virus’.

      Comment by Justin on January 27, 2021

      I think it is because although nourishment and resources were in plentifold. there were also a lot of environmental and health challenges that weren’t fully easy to overcome while they were out there in the early days.


      Comment by Ahmed Bareche on January 27, 2021

      @DylanBarnes I totally agree with your comment. Especially considering Native American culture which based its history on stories that were passed on by generations rather than written documents.

      Comment by dulce Hernandez on January 29, 2021






      Comment by Daniella Ibanez on February 3, 2021

      The fact that this even says “the global exchange of people” is so incredibly sad and heartbreaking.

      Comment by Daniella Ibanez on February 3, 2021

      What does “yawp” mean? I’ve never heard/seen this word before.

      Comment by Daniella Ibanez on February 3, 2021

      This is so interesting. I never quite knew exactly what Indigenous people lived here in California in prior times and now I know that is was the Salinan tribe. It’s also so cool to hear how the first man and women came to be–based off their beliefs/religion. The bald eagle that formed the first man out of clay and the first women coming from a feather is pretty much their version of our Adam and Eve. I’ve never heard other stories like this from different cultures and I love that I already learned something new!

      Comment by Daniella Ibanez on February 3, 2021

      Wow, insane!

      Comment by Daniella Ibanez on February 3, 2021

      Must’ve been a long trip…

      Comment by Daniella Ibanez on February 3, 2021

      I wonder if these languages are still with us today or if many of them have gone lost over the centuries.

      Comment by Daniella Ibanez on February 3, 2021

      I’m sure they were very resourceful.

      Comment by Daniella Ibanez on February 3, 2021

      I knew men would do the hunting and fishing but what I didn’t know is that it was the Women who built their agriculture. Good for them.

      Comment by Yan Zhang on February 4, 2021

      When we gain something we must lose something as well. This how the world run today.

      Comment by Taheeda forreszt on February 15, 2021

      European nations began to emerge several centuries ago as economic powers. They. had a modern perspective. If you cam appeal to the European you can have some sort of power

      Comment by Austin Haynes on February 26, 2021

      Yawp \yôp\ n: 1: a raucous noise 2: rough vigorous language”I sound my barbaric yawp over the roofs of the world.” Walt Whitman, 1855.

      Comment by Matthew McGrath on May 27, 2021

      I wonder if there were any other types of fish that were to be able to be caught besides just the salmon ?

      Comment by Matthew McGrath on May 27, 2021

      I am thinking even back then in the olden days that a farmer would produce just as much as the hunter and gatherer if not more because they have the tools necessary at any given moment, then again I may be wrong.

      Comment by Matthew McGrath on May 27, 2021

      As I am reading this paragraph I am wondering was the word Macaw means in old English. If I had to guess I would say it is a small dug out chair within a home ?

      Comment by Matthew McGrath on May 27, 2021

      I find it very unique how the ancient natives link their life and death experiences with the sun, moon and stars .

      Comment by Matthew McGrath on May 27, 2021

      I can imagine the acers of land that these tribes had conquered would crumble over time especially if there was no one there to upkeep the land.

      Comment by Matthew McGrath on May 27, 2021

      For me this seems like the natives were not just from India, but from all over the country.

      Comment by Bernadette McGriff on May 28, 2021

      great Intro

      Comment by Alina Canete on July 10, 2021

      Sistema de Castas

      Comment by Quentin Parker on August 20, 2021

      This is beyond creative: “Eastern Woodland peoples wove plant fibers, embroidered skins with porcupine quills, and modeled the earth to make sites of complex ceremonial meaning.” I notice the Native’s were highly intelligent when it came to communication and survival. You could actually put them any where on earth during the Ice Age and the Natives would figure out away to live. This is a 1000’s of years ago. No electric technology just stick, stones, and living organisms. Pretty amazing!

      Comment by Kemberly Magana on August 24, 2021

      in the fifteenth century

      Comment by Soleila Harewood on August 27, 2021

      Its interesting to see how they spoke hundreds of different languages, because this isn’t taught in school at all.

      Comment by Soleila Harewood on August 27, 2021

      Is there a specific reason they call is the “Three Sisters?”

      Comment by Soleila Harewood on August 27, 2021

      I wonder if agriculture was worth the cons for the Natives. They cons of having weak bones and being “sick” for other skills. I also wonder how badly their weak bones affected their skills.

      Comment by Soleila Harewood on August 27, 2021

      [North America’s indigenous peoples shared some broad traits. Spiritual practices, understandings of property, and kinship networks differed markedly from European arrangements. ]

      I feel that it was a great thing for them to share traits, it causes less divide and less suffering, it makes me wonder if its better for us to share traits or for us to have diverse beliefs and traits. I know that differences help us grow but at the same time, there are more problems with more differences.

      Comment by Soleila Harewood on August 27, 2021

      [This incorporation did not mean equality, however.]

      I think this statement is important, because a lot of people like to argue about the fact that they were outnumbered but don’t like to talk about the fact that there wasn’t any equality. This quote is just a memorable one for me.

      Comment by Maddy Godfrey on September 8, 2021

      I think that this picture should be incorporated into the text because it helps readers to envision he once thriving aztec village.

      Comment by Ann on September 9, 2021

      I think it should be mentioned that las Casas solution to the mistreatment of indigenous peoples was the importation and enslavement of Africans.

      Also – flipping between Spanish and European is confusing for some of my students. Let’s be honest – most Americans have little knowledge of geography and may not realize that Spain is part of Europe.

      Comment by Raysheta L Kimble on October 17, 2021

      This was the beginning of history where the natives did not receive equality.

      Comment by Raysheta L Kimble on October 17, 2021

      I think Americas was a new world for the Natives also ,but it was no longer knew to the Natives when Columbus came.

      Comment by Kalan Whisted on October 18, 2021

      It’s interresting hearing about how Europeans drastically changed the world for Native Americans. It makes me wonder what life would look like if instead of us bashing the Native Americans for there cultures and ripping that away from them, what would of happened if we welcomed their culture with ours? How would the world look today?

      Comment by Kalan Whisted on October 18, 2021

      When reading about Native American culture I always find it interesting how respectful of the land they are. Most people are greedy and will run land dry as long as they get good use out of it. By the way the passage describes, the Native community only “provided nutritional needs necessary to sustain cities and civilizations” without making the land unusable. I respect that thought process and effort.

      Comment by Kalan Whisted on October 18, 2021

      A mind blowing thought is thinking about how all of this was made with their hands or tools that they made by hand. How was this possible?

      Comment by Kalan Whisted on October 18, 2021

      The Lenapes organized their communities around their crop harvesting seasons, this was crucial in there successfulness as a community. Without this it seems as if they wouldn’t have been as successful with their upbringing.

      Comment by Kalan Whisted on October 18, 2021

      It is clear in this passage that to Europeans new culture equals money and power. This is why the renaissance was sparked and created that demand for new commodities.

      Comment by Kalan Whisted on October 18, 2021

      What would of happened if Columbus hadn’t convinced Queen Isabella and Kind Ferdinand to give him 3 small ships? Would we of discovered Bahamas as quickly as we did? How long would that of taken?

      Comment by Kalan Whisted on October 18, 2021

      This was selfish of the Europeans. Why did we see that we were causing harm to the people that lived on the land and not do anything to stop the destruction? Obviously we were selfish and didn’t care. Why is peace always the last resort? The Native Americans should of had to accommodate for the colonials.

      Comment by Kalan Whisted on October 18, 2021

      should NOT** of had to accommodate for the colonials.

      Comment by Kalan Whisted on October 18, 2021

      I wonder what the look on the soldiers faces where like when they had seen the cities for the first time? Everything being described in this passage sounds like a dream, I can only imagine how incredible it was.

      Comment by Kalan Whisted on October 18, 2021

      95% of the Native American population perished because of diseases brought on by Europeans and we are just now talking about it. This is disgusting and I am embarrassed by my ancestors.

  • 20. The Progressive Era (62 comments)

    • Comment by joy roman on September 17, 2018

      feel like something is missing

      Comment by joy roman on September 17, 2018

      feels like something is missing

      Comment by Morgan Musgrove on September 17, 2018

      There is an extra A at the beginning of this paragraph

      Comment by Joe on September 22, 2018

      Fixed. Thanks!

      Comment by Connor Heideman on October 2, 2018

      The last sentence seems to have a flaw, all that is needed is to add the word “do”.

      “…should ask themselves what they could __ to enact the kingdom…”

      Comment by Erik on February 10, 2019

      The last sentence of this paragraph refers to “Carnegie’s U.S. Steel,” implying that Andrew Carnegie was running U.S. Steel when Taft was President.  I don’t believe that was the case.

      Comment by jorje on February 13, 2019

      their is nothing about frank norris in here plz add him

      Comment by Grayson on February 26, 2019

      You spelled “please” incorrectly. In addition, you spelled your own name, “George”, incorrectly. You have also used the incorrect “there”. You neglected to capitalize your first letter, add a comma between “here” and “please”, and you forgot a period to conclude. It would please me if you corrected these errors.

      Comment by Melanie Gustafson on September 18, 2019

      It is the National American Woman Suffrage Association not the National American Suffrage Association.

      Comment by Melanie Gustafson on September 18, 2019

      You have it wrong here again: It is the National American Woman Suffrage Association


      Comment by Melanie Gustafson on September 18, 2019

      It should be U.S. Steel not Carnegie’s U.S. Steel.

      Comment by Melanie Gustafson on September 24, 2019

      Rose Schneiderman. Not Ruth.

      Comment by Nella on November 20, 2019

      It seems that you misspel led disenfranchisement unless you were intentionally saying disfranchisement.

      Comment by Jack P on February 10, 2020

      [National American Suffrage Association]

      It’s the National American Woman Suffrage Association.

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Wrote about the changes in society.


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Gilded age-  the rise of unprecedented fortunes and unprecedented poverty.

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Reformers sought to clean up polotics


      Black people still fought for their civil rights

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Women wanted to vote

      Workers wanted higher wages

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Reform was in motion

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Making them work in bad factories


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [ Gilded Age injustice]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [ ((Jacob A. Riis, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York (New York: Scribner, 1890).))]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Was trying to show how these laborers were being exploited

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      How did the meet inspection act and pure food and drug act of 1906 come about?

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [Confronted by both the benefits and the ravages of industrialization, many Americans asked themselves, ]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [ Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 The social gospel emerged within Protestant Christianity at the end of the nineteenth century. ]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Christian Socialism- Protestant people wanted to engage people

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [Jesus’s phrase, “the Kingdom of God,” claiming that it encompassed every aspect of life and made every part of society a purview of the proper Christian]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [“The social gospel is the old message of salvation]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [The social gospel seeks to bring men under repentance for their collective sins and to create a more sensitive and more modern conscience. ]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [In the 1890s women formed national women’s club federations]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [The fearsome Carrie A. Nation, an imposing woman who believed she worked God’s will, won headlines for destroying saloons.]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), but the organization’s leaders described her as “unwomanly and unchristian.]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [The 1912 Anti-Saloon League Yearbook, for instance, presented charts indicating comparable increases in alcohol consumption alongside rising divorce rates.]


      Comment by R L on May 10, 2020

      The 4th sentence has no predicate verb; should perhaps be “However, the writings of Rauschenbusch and other social gospel proponents [were/had] a profound influence on twentieth-century American life.”

      Comment by Alex on June 25, 2020

      What does having a wealthy background have anything to do with pushing for antitrust legislation and regulations. Even more unrelated is the fact that he couldn’t rely on courts to break up trusts. This sentence doesn’t tie back to itself, instead stating unconnected facts.

      Comment by Alex on June 26, 2020

      I would have appreciated an explanation of what it means to “cast your bucket down”. It means to make the most of whatever situation you are put in. Basically, he didn’t think that leaving the south and going to the north was any more sensible in trying to achieve economic independence than simply staying in the south.

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      The gilded Age was a time in the United States where the economy and industrialization boomed
      As the economy grew so did tensions between politics and the people

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      The progressive Era:
      Women fought for their right to vote
      Black Americans fought for Equality
      Labors demanded a higher wage and work spaces

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      What Are Mobilizing For Reforms?
      First Paragraph: Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in manhattan Caught fire because manager held the keys to prevent unauthorized breaks. building caught on FIRE Side ladder of the building broke down. Women went to the roof and Jumped off for freedom or died on in the building.

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      The photograph demonstrates policeman placing the corpses in the coffin. This incident called for a lot of attention

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      A year after the Triangle Shirtwaist. factory in Manhattan caught on fire workers had gone on strike demanding:
      Higher wages, and better Safety Conditions
      One of the girls who worked in the factory said that every week one of the girls would be dead
      Business became more sacred than the lives of humans
      Owners of the Triangle factory were charged with manslaughter and two hours later where freed
      Inequality grew and living conditions worsened it became difficult to make a change

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      The Triangle shirtwaist fire moved many Americans to Reform
      Reform: Make a change
      Everyone: journalist , religious  leaders, politicians ETC

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      Reformers used book and magazines to spread the corruption of business men
      coined term for corrupt businessman are Muckrakers Theodore Roosevelt

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 30, 2020

      Jacobs Riis was a journalist who documented the Urban Poverty with videos and Photographs
      Jacob Riis published How the other half Lives
      Sinclair was another journalist who wrote the Jungle
      The jungle was supposed to be a way to support socialist Movement by exposing the brutal labor in the meatpacking industry
      Slaughterhouses where growing so quick for consumers the work place became unsanitary & Unsafe work conditions

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 30, 2020

      Edward Bellamy’s 1888 Looking Backward was a national sensation
      This novel was about a man who falls asleep in 18887 and wakes up in 2000
      The man is confused because the world has altered: Disease and poverty grew, Industries grew as well to build a Utopia of social harmony and economic prosperity
      Bellamy’s vision of a reformed society persuaded readers (Youth Readers) to reform on the STREETS

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 30, 2020

      Charles Sheldon a congregational minister in Topeka Kansas Published IN HIS STEPS: WHAT WOULD JESUS DO?
      His book was a best seller but moved multiple people because it addressed that if we worked as how Jesus would everything from economic, social , and Political issues would be reduced ti a MINIMAL
      This turned into a movement called the SOCIAL GOSPEL

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on July 3, 2020

      Women Clubs flourished in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
      Women suffrage groups where segregated at the time as well

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on July 3, 2020

      Addams and Kelly worked together to push towards a better way of living for the communities
      Such as 8 hour shifts for women and children, They also pushed legislator to pass other bills concerning the people

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on July 7, 2020

      The growth of industrialization brought environmental problems Reformers began to create environmental protections

      Comment by E. Masarik on September 16, 2020

      Rose, not Ruth Schneiderman


      National American American Suffrage Association???

      National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)

      Comment by Brandon Domaceti on September 26, 2020

      Women demanded the vote might better be worded Women demanded to vote.

      Comment by Brooke Falcone on October 12, 2020

      This fir in the Triangle Shirtwaist factory led to much needed reform. One of the biggest reasons being because Francis Perkins, the first women to serve on a cabinet, happened to be walking by at the time of the fire. She was so traumatized by is that she decided to try to aid in the reform. In turn some better conditions came to fruition such as regulating doors so they can’t be locked incase of emergencies.

      Comment by Brooke Falcone on October 12, 2020

      To be more specific it touches on how corporations that controlled industries were shaping economics and politics and thereby working conditions.

      Comment by nancy robertson on October 21, 2020

      Shouldn’t the date be 1890, when How the Other Half Lives was published?

      Comment by Kayla on November 3, 2020

      There is an extra quotation mark before the quote: “This is not the first time…”

      Comment by nancy robertson on November 14, 2020

      I realize you can’t include every aspect of Progressivism, but a bit more on public health  would set the stage for the Influenza pandemic:

      faith in experts

      importance of prevention

      importance of women, esp. nurses

      using the state to achieve ends, etc.


      although it is clearly more than an urban issue.

      Comment by Russell on February 9, 2021

      Grammar: “Hull House began exposing conditions in local sweatshops and advocating for the organization of workers.” should read “… conditions in local sweatshops and ADVOCATED for the…”

      Comment by Julian Cottrell on September 28, 2021

      More insidiously, perhaps, reformers also associated alcohol with cities and immigrants, “unnecessarily” maligning America’s immigrants, Catholics, and working classes in their crusade against liquor.

      Comment by Bobby Blabby on September 29, 2021

      Needs factchecking

      Comment by Bobby Blabby on September 30, 2021

      sounds discriminatory against Christianity, I sincerely hope that wasn’t what you were implying

      Comment by Bobby Blabby on September 30, 2021

      Need more coverage of the parks created, shut up about the dam, you’re talking about it too long

  • 15. Reconstruction (38 comments)

    • Comment by Ana Aguilar on September 6, 2018

      Why was the south in ruins ?


      Comment by Ana Aguilar on September 6, 2018

      Im thinking what could have happen for a person to think omg its so unbelievable what happen and I have no idea what happen in their own place that they live

      Comment by Ana Aguilar on September 6, 2018

      “barely good roads”

      Comment by Ana Aguilar on September 6, 2018


      Comment by Madison C on February 3, 2019

      missing ending parenthesis at the end of paragraph

      Comment by Albert Fall on February 28, 2019

      You see, the thing about wars….

      Comment by Jazmine Neal on May 20, 2019

      [These so-called Lincoln governments sprang up in pockets where Union support existed like Louisiana, Tennessee, and Arkansas. Unsurprisingly, these were also the places that were exempted from the liberating effects of the Emancipation Proclamation.]

      Emancipation Proclamation was more of a blow to the rebelling states, not to actually abolish slavery. The less rebellious states were rewarded by getting to keep their slaves.

      Comment by Elizabeth Nix on June 27, 2019


      It looks like Douglass delivered this speech in 1878, not 1877. The title of the selection says 1877 and so does the sourcing note at the end.

      Comment by Abby on October 17, 2019

      is that a typo for level

      Comment by Michael Pomatto on December 4, 2019

      [black behavior]

      Should read “the behavior of Blacks…”  It’s is an offense to refer to African-Americans as “black” and not “Black.”

      Comment by Antrita Manduva on December 13, 2019

      the civil war?

      Comment by Lucia Forseth on June 20, 2020

      Freed people sought out to find family members that had been sold when they were enslaved. So they can gain control over their own family.

      Comment by Emily Elmore on August 7, 2020

      In this paragraph, when you read it on the website and not on this section, it says “When lack Americans” when it should say black Americans.

      Comment by George Jarrett on August 17, 2020

      Black Codes should be capitalized in last sentence.

      Comment by George Jarrett on August 17, 2020

      Why frame this whole chapter from the perspective of white Southerners? Wouldn’t it be better to start from the perspective of a freed slave?

      Comment by John Kaiser on August 29, 2020

      While it says, “black Americans” here, it still shows up on the web version I am reading as “lack Americans.”

      Comment by Cristina Salinas on September 22, 2020

      In the sentence that begins when black Americans, in the reading, it says when lack Americans…

      Comment by Erik Alexander on October 29, 2020

      This paragraph is quite dated, still reflected the basic interpretation advanced by C. Vann Woodward in his 1951 Reunion and Reaction.  A series of essays by historians in the 1970s and 1980s, including Michael Les Benedict and Allan Peskin, demolished Woodward’s basic argument about the quid pro quo of the supposed Compromise of 1877 (and Woodward himself later acknowledged that he was wrong).

      There are several problems with some of the basic assumptions of this paragraph, particularly the sentence:

      “Democrats conceded the presidency to Hayes on the condition that all remaining troops would be removed from the South and the South would receive special economic favors.”

      1) Not all of the troops were actually removed after 1877, which Greg Downs as recently demonstrated.

      2) None of the supposed economic favors for Democrats ever actually materialized.

      Moreover, the claim that the compromise allowed Southern Democrats to act without fear of reprisal ignores the reality that Democrats had already been doing so for some time, and also implies Northern Republicans gave up on Reconstruction after 1877, which is also untrue.

      While it is true there were likely some sort of conversations between Democrats and Republicans about Democrats conceding the election to Hayes, the specifics of this supposed compromise have been disproven now for nearly 40 years.  Moreover the key actors in ending the filibuster that allowed the votes to be counted and granted Hayes the presidency were not Southern Democrats, but were actually Northern Democrats in Congress, which turns the entire premise of the compromise upside down.

      Comment by Jaqueline Cabrera on December 8, 2020

      The published version capitalizes “black” in the “Republican officials opened… on a segregated basis.” which is grammatically incorrect given “black” is not a first or last name.

      Comment by Joseph Diaz on December 8, 2020

      As mentioned before it says, “black Americans” here, while it still shows up on the web version as “lack Americans.

      Comment by nancy Robertson on January 3, 2021

      Did ONLY South Carolina and Mississippi pass Black Codes?


      Is it that only they use a specific phrase? Because certainly other states had them

      Comment by Kathryn Holland on January 8, 2021

      I also wonder this, I believe every story has 2 sides and I have not yet read the rest but only including the story told by white southerners seems like it would be quite a bias story.

      Comment by Owen Lavoie on January 13, 2021

      No, of course not. They were just used as examples of the horror that took place among most of the prior confederate states.

      Comment by Brad Miller on January 24, 2021

      This shows up as ‘lack’ Americans in the text.

      Comment by Richard Zamora on February 1, 2021

      I believe to give this paragraph justice and its respect it deserves. The sentence should read as “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights.”  If it is not included I feel that we are only cherry picking the Declaration of Independence.

      Comment by Rachel Needham on February 10, 2021

      What were the first steps in rebuilding the states and the first steps in bringing the states back to the union?

      Comment by Rachel Needham on February 10, 2021

      I thought it was crazy how long Black Americans didn’t have rights and weren’t seen as citizens in the South for almost another century.

      Comment by Rachel Needham on February 10, 2021

      How was president Abraham Lincoln able to piece back together the United States?

      Comment by Rachel Needham on February 10, 2021

      What else did the Emancipation Proclamation ensure?

      Comment by Rachel Needham on February 10, 2021

      Did the 13th amendment get rid of slavery as a whole?

      Comment by Ryan Falla on March 30, 2021

      “lack Americans”

      Comment by Cawwwwhner on May 1, 2021

      Is no one going to address this? What’s the point of it being a collaborative text then?

      Comment by Desiree' Findley on August 19, 2021

      I did not realize the Civil War did so much property damage the affected daily transportation.

      Comment by Desiree' Findley on August 19, 2021

      Because of the Civil War.

      Comment by Desiree' Findley on August 19, 2021

      What does Yawp mean?

      Comment by Jeannie on August 22, 2021

      I was thinking more along the lines of like county commissioners they were over the levee like for water, to help prevent the over flow.

      Comment by Michael Cleaver on October 6, 2021

      Change anti-racist politics to pro-black politics. The modern idea of anti-racism includes remedying discrimination against all races, genders, and sexual identities. The reconstruction era black organizers were not fighting for rights and benefit of Native Americans, Chinese, Jews or oppressed white races like the Irish. Using the concept of Anti-racism is not a historical term and is confusing for a reader of the 21st century where the anti-racism was developed as a system to identify and combat prejudice among many different groups.

      Comment by Laura Johnston on October 12, 2021

      I really focused on the line where the South granted African Americans “legal freedom and little more”. Our freedom should come with being seen as equal and unalienable rights, yet back then it seems like having freedom in america, and being seen and treated as a human being, were seen as two completely different things.

  • 24. World War II (32 comments)

    • Comment by Christopher Flores on September 6, 2018

      “Comprehending Japanese motivations for attacking China and the grueling stalemate of the ensuring war are crucial for understanding Japan’s seemingly unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii”
      Is the word “ensuring” supposed to be “ensuing”?

      Comment by Joe on September 22, 2018

      Yes it was. It’s fixed now. Thanks!

      Comment by Alyssa DiDonato on November 3, 2018



      Comment by Erik Hearne on March 21, 2019

      Not a criticism but more a request. I didn’t see much or any mention of the lend-lease program championed by Roosevelt preceding the U.S. entry into the war. This chapter would benefit from a section on it as this was vital to Roosevelt’s attempt to bypass the rest of the country’s isolationist perspectives.

      Comment by Walker Robins on April 10, 2019

      Reintroduces and re-explains material introduced in paragraph 63.

      Comment by Sunny Hicks on November 22, 2019

      The most plausible response  for the U.S. military was to bomb either the camps or the railroads leading to them
      (remove the first instance of “was”)

      Comment by Herbert Hoover on December 11, 2019

      Japanese troops surrender on June 3, 1943.


      Comment by Nayellie Frias on December 13, 2019

      From June 5th, 1942 till May 30th, 1943, a Japanese garrison occupied the Aleutian Islands of Attu and Kiska, which are a part of Alaska. The “Battle of Attu” took place there, and that was the first and only battle to be fought on U.S. soil during WWII.

      I feel like that’s a pretty important thing that is not mentioned here at all.

      Comment by Paul Wallig on December 16, 2019

      [conference at Dumbarton Oaks, outside Washington, D.C.]

      Dumbarton Oaks is in Georgetown a part of Washington D.C.

      Comment by David Peterson on January 20, 2020

      It would be helpful to include more information on appeasement policies. I feel this issue is extremely important and a lesson we need to focus on so that we can learn for the future. It is referenced but briefly.

      Comment by David Peterson on January 20, 2020

      I feel this page would benefit from information on American Neutrality prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The Lend Lease program and the “great arsenal of democracy” while the US specifically passed bills to attempt to stay out. Our involvement in the war prior to Dec. 7th, 1941 seems to be brushed over as well as the American desire to stay out of another European war.

      Comment by Abby Hatcher on February 26, 2020

      You’re welcome.

      Comment by Paul Mankewitz on March 2, 2020

      The United States did send aid to China in the form of groups of airmen such as the Flying Tigers.

      Comment by Paul Mankewitz on March 2, 2020

      Doesn’t mentioned that the Soviets attacked Poland from the East in addition to the German attack from the West

      Comment by Paul Mankewitz on March 2, 2020

      The casualties from the Bombing of Pearl Harbor were closer to 2,600

      Comment by Paul Mankewitz on March 2, 2020

      The “Army Air Force” wasn’t called that, it was called the Army Air Corps, and there were still air raids that were flown without fighter escort, but used a different tactic instead of flying straight to the target cities.

      Comment by Paul Mankewitz on March 2, 2020

      Also doesn’t mention the first bombing strike against the Japanese capitol a few months after Pearl Harbor, which is very important, The Doolittle Raid.

      Comment by Tiegan Paulson on March 16, 2020

      True, but this was not until after the Lend-Lease Act when the United States was already on the road to war.  The flying tigers, for instance, were not formed until the summer of 1941, only a few months before the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and after the invasion of French Indochina, a point of contention between the United States and Japan.

      Comment by Miguel Solis on March 23, 2020

      You are welcome as well

      Comment by Chloe Morris on April 2, 2020

      Alan Turing is the name of the man who cracked Germany’s enigma code. Alan Turing created the Turing machine, which cracked the German’s code, which changed every 24 hours. By cracking their code, the war ended much quicker and so many lives were saved. Alan Turing’s Turing machine was actually the foundation for modern computers. He is a genius and a hero and deserves to be recognized. He is often left out of history, due to the fact that he was gay and found out.  He was deemed a criminal for being a gay schoolteacher.  He took his own life due to this. The queen of England pardoned him but it wasn’t until the 2000s I think. Remember the name Alan Turing because he stopped the war and saved countless lives.

      Comment by Isabela T Pinto on July 13, 2020

      “At home, Japan was driven…” not riven. Grammatical error.

      Comment by George Jarrett on October 22, 2020

      Misspelling, 2nd to last sentence: should be “inflamed” not “enflamed”

      Comment by nancy on January 1, 2021

      May want to specify that it did NOT affect the military.

      I am not sure students understand what “defense industry” means–shouldn’t it mean the armed forces?

      defense industries or companies with defense contracts

      might be clearer.

      Comment by David Heidell on January 15, 2021

      The line the But while the U.S. denounced Japanese aggression, it took no action is misleading. It overlooks the U.S.S. Panay incident and the steel and oil embargo placed on Japan on July 26th 1941. It also overlooks loans and arms sales to China in 1940 and 1941 and the formation of the American Volunteer Group.

      Comment by Nicholas Zhang on February 23, 2021

      Oversimplified, the Nationalists were still pursuing the Communists until Chiang Kai-shek was kidnapped by his generals and forced to establish an alliance during the Xi’an incident in 1936 to recognize Japan as the ultimate threat.

      Comment by Nicholas Zhang on February 23, 2021

      Misleading first 2 sentences, the Nationalists were also engaged with fighting the CPC during 1935-1936 which was why they were in dire need of people and supplies following the Long March in Shaanxi in the first place. Additionally, phrasing of “stubborn communist insurgency” downplays the many violent purges Chiang Kai-shek carried out during the White Terror to eliminate communist threats. Overall the way this paragraph is written inaccurately portrays the sides of the Civil War with the KMT in an overly glorified light as some sort of hero being subverted by the Communists. This is particularly apparent with the introduction “As Chinese Nationalists fought for survival, the Communist Party was…” Paragraph should be rewritten to not portray either side in a biased way.

      Comment by David Ellis on April 12, 2021

      It should be addressed that Howard Miller’s ‘We Can Do It‘ poster would not have been widely recognized at the time as it was only posted inside Westinghouse Electric Corporation factories and only for two weeks at that – as it says on the bottom of the poster. Because of its internal posting it also was never intended to bring women into the workforce, but instead motivate those who were already working.
      The poster only achieved fame when it was ‘rediscovered’ in the 1980s and used as a feminist icon.
      The actually well-known Rosie was Norman Rockwell’s ‘Rosie the Riveter‘ published as the cover of the nationally circulated Saturday Evening Post on May 29, 1943.

      Comment by David Ellis on April 12, 2021

      Howard Miller’s ‘We Can Do It’ was only posted inside Westinghouse Electric Corporation factories and only for two weeks at that – as it says on the bottom of the poster. Because of its internal posting it also was never intended to bring women into the workforce, but instead motivate those who were already working.

      (Similar comment on par.68)

      Comment by David Ellis on April 12, 2021

      Definitely needs it.

      It alludes to it slightly with the ‘splitting with nonagression after,’ but then avoids poking at why France and England didn’t also declare war on Russia. Given, that is a quagmire of treaties, empty promises, and an interwar tradition of politically ignoring Russia.

      Comment by Ann on August 13, 2021

      I agree about lend-lease, as well as adding in the 1937 Neutrality Act. Chamberlain should be mentioned by name.

      Comment by Ann on August 13, 2021

      The Korematsu case would clarify how something like this could happen in America.

      Comment by JOHN SCHMITZ on August 27, 2021

      I’d be happy to add a few sentences or a short paragraph from my new book, Enemies Among Us, dealing with the relocation, internment, and repatriation of German, Italian, and Japanese Americans during the Second World War– it just came out through the University of Nebraska Press… could you please add the book to the bibliography for the chapter?


      Enemies among Us : Nebraska Press (unl.edu)

  • 11. The Cotton Revolution (28 comments)

    • Comment by Theresa Schortgen on February 19, 2019

      a a = remove one of them


      In fact, the South experienced a a greater rate of urbanization between 1820 and 1860 than the seemingly more industrial, urban-based North. 


      independant = incorrectly spelled

      Comment by MICHAEL SNYDER on April 5, 2019

      The link to University of Virginia doesn’t work, or at least didn’t work for me.

      Comment by Robert Scibelli on April 10, 2019

      Found a typo, I believe there should only be one “a”

      Comment by Monica Rico on April 14, 2019

      Didn’t work for me either. I googled “The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas” and found an archived version of the page at the LOC.


      Comment by hi on May 29, 2019

      Slaves had become more valuable and expensive.

      Comment by Jonathan Robins on July 17, 2019

      This paragraph, following Johnson 2013, misidentifies Petit Gulf as Gossypium barbadense. It was G. hirsutum. See Olmsted and Rhode 2018.   Petit Gulf was, in turn, bred and hybridized into many other forms – it’s more accurate to state G. hirsutum rather than Petit Gulf became the typical “American” long-staple cotton. G. barbadense does not need to be saw-ginned (roller ginning is still preferred today) and saw gins damage the fiber.

      See botanical as well as historical literature for evidence documenting this point (for example https://books.google.com/books?id=CvEhAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA470&lpg=PA470&dq=petit+gulf+g.+hirsutum&source=bl&ots=a5PZtJZ9qi&sig=ACfU3U17HVi4LDMyIDDSZ6Qm0iVTKcDP_w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjMpLC5vbzjAhUBQ80KHbc3BlIQ6AEwDnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=petit%20gulf%20g.%20hirsutum&f=false 


      Comment by SJR on August 1, 2019

      It seems as though this section indicates that the rise of American cotton is directly responsible for the advent of the modern fashion system, which is not the case. “Fashion” – where styles change for change’s sake – has been present since the 1400s. People have been wearing decoration on their apparel that goes beyond utility since apparel was developed.

      The use of the word “honest” seems disingenuous as well – all clothing has a function (to cover the body; to differentiate gender, age, status, etc; to protect from the elements…). What does “honest” refer to?

      Comment by Adele Oltman, PhD on August 13, 2019

      Morgan — and others, including John Thornton — show that those first “20 Negars and then some” were not exactly unfree. Or if they were, they were as “unfree” as poor white indentured servants from England were.  Virginia colonists baptized those first 20 men from Africa (who were traded for food). According to English law, a person who was baptized could not be enslaved. This would change, of course.  See “The Terrible Transformation,” part of the PBS series, Africans in the Americas.

      The story of Anthony Johnson is instructive. He arrived in the VA colony somewhere around 1619. He was baptized and he somehow managed to survive his term of servitude (unlike most in the first generations of the colony — the colony was a death trap). Johnson got his freedom dues and at some point he purchased “head rights” so that by 1655 he owned a modest plantation on which he grew tobacco. That  was the year that one of his servants, a black man from Africa named Cesar, sued Johnson for his freedom. Cesar lost. Significant is that the local magistrate not only heard the case between two black men, but less significant is that he ruled in Johnson’s favor.

      When I teach Morgan and I pull out this primary source it doesn’t take long for my students to figure out why the magistrate ruled in Johnson’s favor: he was a landowner.

      Colonists were still working out how racial inferiority and slavery was going to operate in the colony (and also neighboring colony of Maryland). You begin to see this gradually; but after Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 planters begin to move toward racialized slavery faster and systematically for a variety reasons, not least of which was that they wanted to continue to exploit workers to produce cash crop and at the same time mitigate the possibilities for interracial uprisings against the ruling elites.


      Comment by Ed Whitley on February 13, 2020

      [The world was slowly but surely coming closer together, and the South was right in the middle.]

      The students in my class at Lehigh University felt that this sentence did not fully communicate how the brutality of slavery underwrote the dawn of globalization.

      Comment by Bill on May 8, 2020


      Replace “violent” with bracketed phrase.

      “Of course, tobacco is, and was, an addictive substance, but because of its (violent) [inconsistent, if not diminished,] pattern of growth,”

      Comment by Bill on May 8, 2020

      “yields” instead of “pattern of growth”

      “Of course, tobacco is, and was, an addictive substance, but because of its inconsistent, if not diminished, yields,…”

      Comment by Bill on May 8, 2020

      “reduced” for “diminished”

      I know…angels on heads of an editorial pen:-)

      Comment by seth on July 9, 2020

      There is no end to this quote. Where does it end?

      Comment by TONYA RICHARD on August 10, 2020

      1785 peel



      Comment by Margaret Adams on October 6, 2020

      Comment by Andrew Paul on November 5, 2020

      The second sentence in this paragraph doesn’t read correctly.

      Comment by Alexia Petersen on November 11, 2020

      It should be Selina, not Celia, in the paragraph.

      Comment by Lisandro Torras on November 12, 2020

      The second sentence of this paragraph is incomplete. “Fashion trends no longer required an honest function—such as a broad-brimmed hat to protect one from the sun, knee-high boots for horse riding, and linen shirts and trousers to fight the heat of an unrelenting sun.” Might I suggest changing it to, “Fashion trends that no longer served their original purpose—such as a broad-brimmed hat to protect one from the sun, knee-high boots for horse riding, and linen shirts and trousers to fight the heat of an unrelenting sun—lost popularity at an astonishing rate.”

      Comment by Bretton Hoover on January 20, 2021

      The second sentence should say “The revivals of the Second …” instead of “The revivals the Second …”. As it is currently stands, the sentence does not make sense.

      Comment by Jonathan Mathews on February 2, 2021

      Should be one “a” instead of “a a.”

      Comment by Jonathan David Mathews on February 2, 2021

      You need an “of” see above.

      Comment by Ann on August 5, 2021

      If the value of land is static, it would not increase. The next sentence contradicts this as the value of the land increases from $600 to $100K over 25 years.

      Comment by Michael Cleaver on October 2, 2021

      The sentence “This, most importantly, allowed for the maintenance of cultural traditions, such as language, religion, name practices, and even the rare practice of bodily scaring.”

      I believe the author meant “bodily scarring” or “scarification” it was probably a misspelling.

      Also I was unable to find other references to this “rare practice” and suggest that it be cited or removed from the text.

      Comment by Michael Cleaver on October 3, 2021

      This sentence closes a paragraph that is focused on the power balance of global trade, and not a statement on the moral values or brutality of slavery.

      Comment by Michael Cleaver on October 3, 2021

      A good fix would be changing “Fashion trends no longer required an honest function…” to “Southern fashion trends no longer required and honest function…”

      I agree that the original senetence was overly broad.

      Comment by Michael Cleaver on October 3, 2021

      I think you are confusing Robert E. Lee’s slave in the photograph (paragraph 60) with the slave “Celia” who was raped by Robert Newsom as described in paragraph 59. I think the original text is correct.

      Comment by Michael Cleaver on October 3, 2021

      Please ad the word “of” in the second sentence as described in previous comments.

      Comment by Michael Cleaver on October 3, 2021

      This comment applies to Paragraph 45.

  • 02. Colliding Cultures (26 comments)

    • Comment by Sharleen Levine on January 6, 2019

      Font size does not match the rest of the chapter. Besides this paragraph, the font size is not consistent in other parts of Sections 1-3 of Chapter 2. Please fix for readability, especially for visually impaired readers.

      Comment by Unit 2 on January 14, 2019

      Puritans were stereotyped as  killjoys, Puritans did not succeed. Puritans would not stay away from alcohol or sex based on their religion or life style.Puritans believe that the European church was to close to Catholicism.

      Comment by Daniel on April 18, 2019

      I feel that you should include the term iconoclasm here as this was the name given to the abolition or ornate churches, and that the definition should be expanded upon a but to show the full breath of reforms that the Puritans were attempting to achieve.

      Comment by Daniel on May 20, 2019

      There needs to be a section dedicated to the explorations of de Soto.

      Comment by Brantly Bemis on September 2, 2019

      Not sure where you are getting your information from, but Oñate cut off the foot of every male above the age of 25. He enslaved everyone between the ages of 12-25.

      Comment by Shawn Louis Marchelsano00222000 on September 12, 2019

      Diseases wiped out entire civilizations

      nutrient rich foods help European population

      Spaniard slaughter acoma of 1500 inhabitants

      Black legend – drew on religous diff, and political rivalries

      Middle ground The great lakes had lots of success

      Labor shortages crippled the Dutch

      the puritians commited to reforming the church of england






      Comment by Thomas Phillips on September 26, 2019

      Did they really only import eleven slaves?

      Comment by Alexander Perdomo on December 21, 2019

      Why didn’t the Spanish try to keep their discoveries to themselves to gain advantage over their competition?

      Comment by Alexander Perdomo on December 21, 2019

      if the youngs kept dying why didn’t the french try to come up with solutions and try separating themselves from giving one another diseases?

      The French were able to come to terms with this new society, why couldn’t the competition do the same instead of murdering communities?


      Comment by Alexander Perdomo on December 21, 2019

      if the dutch bought into democracy, could they have gone further in their financial organizations?

      Comment by Jamie Starling on December 29, 2019

      The Spanish did try to control access and information as best they could, but that was a tough thing to keep secret! One key is that Spain’s Hapsburg kings also ruled much of what is now the Netherlands, Belgium, and adjacent areas of Germany. When the Protestant Reformation spread to the Spanish Netherlands, Dutch printers such as Theodore de Bry translated, illustrated, and printed Spanish accounts of the conquest in order to inform their anti-Catholic propaganda.

      Maybe a quick note that Spain had a vast European empire, and fought for decades to defend its interests against the rise of Protestant powers informed these processes could go here. (The Spanish rivalry is noted).

      Comment by nancy robertson on January 20, 2020

      paragraph 76–with citation for Winthrop, gives the date of 1830 for the Modell–I think you mean 1630.


      HOWEVER the new book by Mark Peterson _The City-State of Boston_ totally complicates the matter.  It does not appear that Winthrop delivered the talk on the Arabella–and there is no contemporaneous references to it.  He MAY have delivered in in England.  But it does not gain traction until the 1830s.

      Comment by SG Shepp on May 30, 2020

      Regarding the lost colony of Roanoke, the word found carved in the tree was “Croatoan,” not “Croatan.”

      Comment by Jake Samuel on August 13, 2020

      Because of the existence of the British East India company, the text should mention that the Dutch East India company is separate to avoid confusion

      Comment by Jake Samuel on August 14, 2020

      [Fears of racial mixing led the Dutch to import enslaved women, enabling the formation of African Dutch families.]

      ah yes the dutch fear racial mixing, so they bring in enslaved women, which enable racial mixing

      it all makes sense now

      Comment by Jacob Ellison on August 21, 2020

      [ Jean Calvin]

      John Calvin*

      Comment by Lloyd on August 25, 2020

      I know Wikipedia is a reader contributed site so I’m not sure if my info is correct, either.  I’m curious about your use of the word, “Hapsburgs.”  Wikipedia calls it Hadsburg and says the Netherlands was in an 80 year war from 1568-1648.  I’m wondering about your “officially broke away from the Hapsburgs…” statement as to its accuracy? Thank you for you input to this inquiry.  Lloyd F Barb

      Comment by Travis Kuenzi on October 2, 2020

      JOHN Calvin, not Jean

      Comment by Tom Goetz on June 30, 2021

      Would some details about the 1680 Pueblo Revolt help students better understand how Southwest Indians contributed to the shaping of the colonial New Mexico’s identity?

      Comment by Dillon Rowe on August 26, 2021

      Surprising lack of any reference to the first settlers of New England (the colony of Plymouth) and the parallel Separatist movement that fueled the first settlement. Should definitely include something about the Pilgrims in 1620 and their journey.

      Comment by Alante Kyles on August 31, 2021

      [Spain benefited most immediately as the wealth of the Aztec and Incan Empires strengthened the Spanish monarchy. ]

      Seems as if


      Comment by Aspen Rylander on September 2, 2021

      Do we know around how much gold and other valuables the Spanish took from the Aztecs? Do we know how many Aztecs died as a result of this?

      Comment by Very Frustrated on September 9, 2021

      As a college student and enthusiastic book-lover of all genres, this is the worst history book I have ever read. Yawp is the perfect word for it. It’s incomprehensible yodeling; American Yawp exasperates me. Despite the fact that the history of America is fascinating, this book basically collects each important name, something those people did, and the year they did it in and drops those facts onto the page in a manner that tries to sound intelligent. Where is the STORY in hiSTORY???

      I am disappointed that my college chose this textbook… how do I survive a whole semester with this? Now I am going to have to double my assigned reading each week because I need something to supplement what American Yawp is refusing to give me.

      More context for almost every topic mentioned in this book is needed. Please stop jumping around all over the place. And I’m begging you; please make it more memorable. Your readers need to be at least 1% interested, or the book is worthless and the information unhelpful. Historical information is already hard enough to memorize. Please don’t leave me wondering what on earth I just read after every chapter.

      Comment by Tom Goetz on September 20, 2021

      “Divine Wind” is invoked for Kamikazes and the old storm that saved Japan from Kublai Khan, whereas “Protestant Wind” is typically the go-to phrase for the storm that engulfed the Spanish Armada.

      Comment by Kassandra Cervantes on October 2, 2021

      new empires merged

      Comment by Kalan Whisted on October 19, 2021

      Hearing about the casualties that Onate caused was hard to read, especially about the 15 year old boys that got their foot cut off for surviving.

  • 30. The Recent Past (25 comments)

    • Comment by chris parisi on April 26, 2019

      I think you have done a wonderful job of scholarship on what you have in this chapter, but I believe that there are some key aspects that shouldn’t get left out.  H.W. Bush’s Panamanian invasion and the ouster of Noriega is missing here.  I believe that it fits in with the long shadow of both Cold War anticommunism, globalized economics, Latin American foreign policy and the Drug Wars.  I would be happy to provide content if you wished.  My feeling was that it belonged somewhere between paragraph 10 and 11.

      Comment by Sean Dinces on May 28, 2019

      Should be “Katherine Harris” instead of “Kathleen Harris”

      Comment by Kerry Hall on July 10, 2019

      I would suggest less on Clinton’s attacks on Iraq while being sure to mention that a key cause of the Iraq war (besides WMD)was the false allegation that Saddam was allies with al Qaeda. Thank you!

      Comment by Anthony Speciale on May 10, 2020

      self-described “DEMOCRATIC socialist”. There is certainly a strong distinction, especially considering Sanders’ brand of democratic socialism could be more accurately described as social democracy, in the vein of the Nordic countries.

      Comment by Anthony Speciale on May 10, 2020

      Perhaps something should be added about the partisan nature of the #MeToo movement, in regards to centrist/moderate Democrats using it as a tool against Republicans, especially in light of how quickly these same Democrats who were #MeToo advocates in 2018-2019 were suddenly nowhere to be found when presumptive Democratic nominee Joe Biden had accusations against him. Meanwhile, Democrats and independents on the left who were #MeToo advocates continued on, even against a moderate Democrat like Joe Biden.

      Comment by Fatima Parada-Taboada on July 1, 2020

      I think you meant “beat Reagan” not “best.”

      Comment by KK Slider on September 30, 2020

      Comment by Rodney Jones on October 5, 2020


      Comment by Rodney Jones on October 5, 2020

      The Republican’s choice of Donald Trump should be amended with the word “alleged,” to read “…nominated a real estate developer, celebrity, and alleged billionaire …”

      The change should be made since Trump’s billionaire status is in question.

      Comment by Chalvin on December 2, 2020


      Comment by Anthony Speciale on December 4, 2020

      Definitely agree with the addition of the false allegations of Saddam Hussein having WMDs and allying with al Qaeda.

      Comment by Haven on December 11, 2020

      “In 2014, Latinos surpassed non-Latino whites to became the largest ethnic group in California”

      Should be changed to become.

      Comment by Haven on December 11, 2020

      “best” can be used as a verb meaning “beat” and is appropriate here.

      Comment by Greg Lewis on April 29, 2021

      I believe the word “after” should be added to the sentence about Willie Horton (after being released).

      Comment by Jed on June 5, 2021

      You should mention Jimmy Carter started aiding the Mujahideen during Operation Cyclone.

      Comment by Andrew on July 5, 2021

      Comment by Evan Jackson on August 11, 2021

      Agreed! This page needs to take a more neutral stance! The intro paragraph now showing is not up for edits and it needs a lot of them. Just because the writer claims a view does not mean that is the view to be claimed. Give the claims of both sides, and then let the reader do his/her own research to take the side they believe. Don’t pollute this one good source.

      Comment by Julia P Martinez on August 11, 2021

      It doesn’t show in this view, but when viewed in the website, the second half of this paragraph is duplicated in a new paragraph.

      Comment by JM on August 16, 2021

      The opening few paragraphs on January 6, don’t naturally flow into the rest of the chapter.   It stands out and will cause many students to stop reading.  There is a way to incorporate it, but that is not effective.

      Comment by Ann on August 16, 2021

      But WHY did al-Qaeda/bin Laden attack? That’s an important part that was left out of this.

      Comment by Ann on August 16, 2021

      This implies that Obama was President when the Great Recession hit. Obama was not sworn in until 2009. Then the Tea Party. Then Occupy Wall Street in 2011. This chronology of this whole section is jumbled and confusing.

      Comment by Ann on August 17, 2021

      In light of the events in Afghanistan over the last few days, there needs to be an update of the situation and clarification of the timeline of our total withdrawal. A comparison to Saigon is not unwarranted, IMHO.

      Comment by Diane Dooley on August 31, 2021

      Starting with section VIII New Horizons-

      you have two different versions

      The Version that one would read from the table of contents has a chapter titled “American Carnage” which has a paragraph that is slightly edited and repeated (first 2 paragraphs after picture of Trump-not in this section, so I don’t have paragraph numbers).

      When you come to the comment section, VIII New Horizons is a completely different section on LGBTQ, #Me Too, and BLM.

      Both need to be included in the actual text.

      I hope someone will read this and improve this section.

      Comment by Kathryn L Merriam on September 2, 2021

      The title for the section on Trump’s presidency is “American Carnage.”

      This is extremely biased and misleading. There was no “carnage” or increase in deaths as a result of Trump’s presidency. War deaths were down. The economy was up sharply until the Pandemic as a result of Trump’s policies.

      A better title would be “A Populist President.”

      Comment by chelsea on October 10, 2021

      Funny how the current intro talking about the January 6th incident isn’t available for us to leave feedback about. Since I can’t leave a comment regarding that specific paragraph, I will have to use this one. That intro is full of lies and, you leftists’ favorite word: misinformation. The January 6th incident is still under investigation with lies still coming out about what actually happened and who were actually involved. Same goes for the election. If you don’t have 100% facts about either incident yet (as both are still being investigated), probably best to not include it in your history book. This makes me question the accuracy of any and all of this textbook if you are so willing to publish something so fresh that still isn’t 100% reported accurately, especially with biased journalists and media. Do you want to include all the nonsense about Covid too? Mask? No mask? Vaccine? No vaccine? This is ridiculous.

  • 17. Conquering the West (25 comments)

    • Comment by Christopher Hastings on September 23, 2018

      The Battle of Whitestone Hill took place from Sept. 3-5.  Although the bulk of the fighting occurred on the 3rd, there were engagements on the 4th and 5th.  Also, estimates of Sioux casualties range from 100-300.  Might want to mention the name of the battle as well.

      Comment by Damian on June 28, 2019

      Annie shot apples off of her English Setter, I can’t find any information about a poodle.

      Comment by Lindsay Marshall on September 23, 2019

      Titling this chapter “Conquering the West” perpetuates a triumphalist view of westward expansion and valorizes the perpetrators of genocide against Native peoples during the nineteenth century.

      Comment by Joel Frary on October 17, 2019

      I strongly disagree. The title is cynical is can be used as a talking point in class what “Conquering the West” really meant, themes that the chapter certainly doesn’t valorize.

      For example, I title one of my lectures “The Wild West” not because I wax poetic on duels at high noon, but because it provides a jumping off point to describe the mythology of the Wild West and why Americans engaged in myth-making.

      Comment by Justin Timberlake on February 11, 2020

      Should say “President Lincoln commuted all but thirty-eight of the sentences.” Missing a hyphen (-)

      Comment by Jeremy Jenkins on February 20, 2020

      Should be Native American, not Indian.

      Comment by Debbra K Treat on October 2, 2020

      Brigham Young did not become the leader of the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. On the westward movement they split. Brigham Young (the original leader) had a vision of the mountains in Utah but Joseph Smith and some of the other members wanted to continue on to California, which they did.

      Comment by nancy robertson on January 7, 2021

      Several parapgraphs back the text mention the Dakota uprising and massacre.

      I can guarantee most students are not going to connect back to it–in part because “troubles of 1862” is oblique–unless like the Troubles in Ireland, it is a phrase that means something in this context.  So you need something more specific.

      Comment by Nancy Marie Robertson on January 7, 2021

      I think it is worth noting it took place in the Centennial year of the US.


      It is worth noting that some military leaders were critical of Custer’s actions (I don’t know how much that was professional jealousy or defending their own reputation).


      But a lot of Custer’s reputation was due to efforts of his window Elizabeth Bacon Custer–and reflect rising interest in celebrity as well as the “cowboys, soldiers, and Indians” in popular culture.

      Comment by Taylor LaPoint on January 21, 2021

      Suggestion to change “had” in the first sentence to “have.” Though I know that past-tense is typical of textbooks, changing this sentence to present tense is important as it showcases the continued existence of Native Americans in the United States to present day. Many students of US History are unaware that indigenous communities still exist. Changing the language can highlight the importance of indigenous communities in the present day.

      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      I was under the impression that the west was already being colonized prior to the civil war. Is this passage just explaining how although colonization had moved west native Americans still had plenty of land to live on or did people not travel west of the Mississippi before the civil war?


      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      I feel like the wording of the textbook would have gone right over my head if you hadn’t pointed that out. I agree that it is necessary to acknowledge native American’s continued existence in our country. I know that I personally live only about 30 minutes from a native reserve so I can connect with this comment.

      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      It is interesting how the gold rush actually was beneficial to the growth of America despite the lack of profit for miners. I wonder if the people who created rumors of gold actually knew there was gold or if they were just trying to populate the west. (kind of a conspiracy theory however I thought it might be interesting to look into).

      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      It is interesting how the government encouraged settlement westward by rewarding “free” land. I think that this may have appeared to be a good deal to a lot of people however I anticipate that several families found life to be difficult because they did not have strong support from any established communities.

      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      I find it interesting the textbooks continue to refer to Native Americans as Indians when that is not the case. Although natives were thought to be Indians by Christopher Columbus, we have since known that was not the case.

      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      Natives were able to maintain controll while America was busy with the civil war and had its focus elsewhere.

      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      This goes to show how the American government didn’t really care about the native Americans and that the reservations were basically a dump of land to dispose of people that were in the way of western settlement.

      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      The end of this paragraph shows how tired the natives were of conflict and how even the toughest would give up eventually. This is saddening to hear despite it being a part of the history that lead to the United States today because our prosperity today was dependent on the suffering of these native people.

      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      I like this picture because it depicts the first cross-continental transportation system in the U.S.

      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      The poor pay and dangerous nature of work reminds me of the life of people during the industrial period of our country where there were unrealistic work hours in the factories.

      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      Turner had a very interesting view that was welcomed by many during the time that a frontier line was important in the development of westward expansion. He feared losing the frontier however there were new technologies and government influences that would make life without the frontier a non-issue. I feel like there are some parts of this I don’t understand so if anyone could further clarify this part of the reading that would be great.

      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      I thought it was smart of Buffalo Bill to monetize the romanticism of western culture even if he didn’t agree with the depiction because as a business major it showed me an example of taking advantage of the opportunity.

      Comment by Taiga Crenshaw on February 1, 2021

      did the prophets foretell a better future for natives or did they simply fight back against western expansion by Americans?

      Comment by Jessica Moreno on May 30, 2021

      That is interesting how during that time they were able to determine that bison skulls provided an ingredient important for fertilizer.

      Comment by Jordan Keagle on August 11, 2021

      This name is misspelled across the site. Should be “Hornaday.”

  • 25. The Cold War (24 comments)

    • Comment by Hayden Cole on December 4, 2018

      “Nuclear” is misspelled. In addition, the sentence might be better structured by writing as follows: “J. Robert Oppenheimer, director of the Los Alamos nuclear laboratory…

      Comment by Maegan Albert on December 7, 2018

      Soured should be soared – first sentence

      Comment by Maegan Albert on December 7, 2018

      Please ignore this. I’m studying for a final and forgot that “soured” is actually a word.

      Comment by Vincent Nguyen on March 11, 2019

      Paul Robeson was an American Actor and singer, not signer.

      Comment by Corinne Gressang on March 18, 2019

      Same as above comment. Typo

      Comment by Stone Criddle on March 26, 2019

      Wernher von Braun should not be referred to as a “former top German rocket scientist”. Instead, he should be referred to as a “Nazi rocket scientist”. This reference is more conducive to maintenance of the truth.

      Comment by R. N. Nelson on August 3, 2019

      The end of this paragraph mentions “containment” for the first time. What that means is never defined anywhere in the chapter.

      Comment by big three on November 19, 2019

      the cold war grew out of failure to achieve a durable settlement.

      Comment by big three on November 19, 2019

      The political landscape was altered drastically by Franklin Roosevelt’s sudden death in April 1945, just days before the inaugural meeting of the UN. Although Roosevelt was skeptical of Stalin, he always held out hope that the Soviets could be brought into the “Free World.” Truman, like Churchill, had no such illusions. He committed the United States to a hard-line, anti-Soviet approach. ((Harbutt, Yalta 1945).))

      Comment by big three on November 19, 2019

      potsdam conference- discuss fate of soviet occuped poland.


      *manhattan project- learn atomic bomb sucessfully tested. truman told stalin.


      Comment by big three on November 19, 2019

      atlantic charter- churchill and roosevelt issue a joint declaration for post war peace. Established the creation of the united nations. (Soviet union, US, britain, frnace, china)

      This plan also set in motion the p-lanning for a recognized globl economy. The societs rejected these ideas.

      Comment by paul wallig on December 16, 2019

      United States invested $13 billion toward reconstruction 

      Unless inflation adjusted historic sums are not that meaningful.  For instance, the AIER cost-of-living calculator shows that $13 billion in 1950 would be the equivalent of $137 billion in 2019.


      Comment by Cindy Hu on March 1, 2020

      [To avoid the postwar chaos of World War I, the Marshall Plan was designed to rebuild Western Europe, open markets, and win European support for capitalist democracies.]

      The Marshall Plan was designed to avoid the postwar chaos of World War II, not World War I.

      Comment by Spencer Hansen on March 30, 2020

      When including words from foreign languages; I believe the actual translation of the word should be included. In this case “détente” is translated by google drive as “relaxation”.

      Comment by Lauryn Kenney on April 21, 2020

      Should be World War II here, not World War I.

      Comment by Sean Milliken on July 1, 2020

      There is absolutely no such thing as “Fusion Explosives.” I suggest either dedicating a full paragraph to the distinctions between fission and fusion, or, the removal of this subject altogether rather than providing false information.

      Comment by Professor Andrew Klosterman on July 10, 2020

      I think more clarification is needed for your total deaths number of 1.5 million.  This may be too low.  I was always taught that this number was likely closer to 3 million and have seen estimates as high as 5 million.  I know how difficult this can be (and unfair in most cases).  However, if you could add more clarification (based on your source listed – Elizabeth Stanley) on how the 1.5 million number was arrived this would be most appreciated.  Thank you.  Professor Andrew J. Klosterman, History 1620, Rhodes State College, Lima, OH.

      Comment by Benjamin Cohen on July 15, 2020

      Insert space between NAACP and “and the ACLU.”

      Insert “pact” after “Hitler’s and Stalin’s 1939 nonaggression”

      Comment by Joshua Sperber on September 20, 2020

      This chapter would be much improved if it addressed the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis. The latter represents a high point of the Cold War and was a central cause of detente.

      Comment by IRSC Student on October 23, 2020

      Nuclear is misspelled. This was first noted on December 4, 2018 and still has not been corrected?

      Comment by maria on October 24, 2020

      In “the cold was a global political and ideological struggle between…” the author forgot to add the commas. In a list of 3 or more concepts, there has to be 2 commas.

      Comment by David Ellis on April 12, 2021

      WWI is correct – though it is oddly phrased.

      It is implying that the Marshall Plan was created as a way to ensure Europe would not see the same issues that had occurred after WWI.

      WWII would only be correct if ‘to avoid’ was changed to ‘to fix/rebuild.’

      Comment by Grayson Student on April 27, 2021

      This sentence is confusing and hard to read. The quotations make it difficult to decipher how the beginning and end of the sentence connect. A simple fix would be to remove the “as” in the phrase “as U.S. officials…” and insert a when at the beginning of the phrase “fighting erupted in Korea.”

      Comment by Kydell Postels on June 24, 2021

      The sentence “One of the most well-known Americans of the time, African American actor and signer Paul Robeson…” should read “…actor and singer…”

  • 21. World War I & Its Aftermath (21 comments)

    • Comment by Kirk Johnson on February 19, 2019

      This paragraph fails to note that Gavrilo Princip was a member of Black Hand. It also suggests that Austria-Hungary was aggressively seeking to annex Serbia, but ignores the expansionist “Greater Serbia” ideology of Black Hand, as well as the role of Austria-Hungary in supporting the Obrenovic dynasty over the then-ruling Karadjordic Dynasty.

      Comment by Hua Rong on March 8, 2019

      This here says that Lodge’s opponents managed to block entry into the League of Nations. How can this be so if Lodge himself was an opponent?

      Comment by Amy Bergseth on May 6, 2019

      Should it be: “Wilson’s opponents successfully blocked America’s entry into the League of Nations” not Lodge’s opponents but Wilson’s?


      Comment by C. Ozarow on May 31, 2019

      “Victor Huerta” should be “Victoriano Huerta”

      Comment by Betty on June 5, 2019

      It should be the “Austro-Hungarian Empire,” not the “Austrian-Hungarian Empire.”

      Comment by Jaedan Ford on July 9, 2019

      should be: “Lodge’s supporters” not “Lodge’s opponents”

      Comment by Marcus Smith on October 1, 2019

      It says that Pres Wilson was the First to travel overseas while in office. This may be misleading, as Teddy Roosevelt traveled to Panama in 1909 during canal construction.

      While he didn’t cross an ocean, “overseas” is commonly understood to mean outside the country, especially if it involves water travel.

      consider replacing “overseas” with “to Europe” or “outside the western hemisphere” or “across an ocean”

      Comment by Shawn Foster on October 4, 2019

      “be” should be inserted between “a” and “fatal” in the following sentence: “Although much of the equipment still needed to make the transatlantic passage, the physical presence of the army proved to a fatal blow to German war plans.”

      Comment by Christopher Shelley on November 12, 2019

      There needs to be a section in this or the next chapter on the Red Scare. It astounds me that there is no mention at all of Abrams v. United States (1919), and the great dissent of Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

      Comment by Paul Wallig on December 13, 2019

      [The army and navy chose to appoint them instead, which left the status of professional medical women hovering somewhere between the enlisted and officer ranks.]

      Appoint them to what? The sentence is unclear.

      Comment by Paul Wallig on December 13, 2019

       Lodge’s opponents successfully blocked America’s entry into the League of Nations,


      I think you want to say “Lodge’s opposition”

      Comment by Alex O. Boulton on March 3, 2020

      I love American Yawp but this chapter is a little disappointing.  The Introduction and Conclusion suggest a leap directly from WWI to 1929 and WWII.  I think that it should reference the US emerging as a world power as a creditor nation and the immediate post-war prosperity of the US..  The chapter should mention resistance to US entry and the draft by Eugene Debs and others.  What new countries emerged in Eastern Europe?  What were final casualty figures in Europe (not just France)?

      Thank you for all your work.

      Comment by Jacob Koziej on March 6, 2020

      [and and]

      Redundant and


      Comment by nancy robertson on March 9, 2020


      Surgeon General of the Army be capitalized.


      And the sentence needs to make clear these numbers are for American soldiers


      Reports from the Surgeon General of the Army revealed that while  227,000 U.S. soldiers were hospitalized from wounds received in battle, almost half a million suffered from influenza.

      Comment by Tomas Q on March 26, 2020


      This last name is spelled incorrectly. It’s correct way is Zimmermann.

      Comment by Tomas on March 26, 2020

      Yes, José Victoriano Huerta Márquez

      Comment by Reader on May 31, 2021

      Perhaps a word is missing from “But in the 1880s, as Americans embarked on empire…”

      Comment by Randy on June 24, 2021

      Reading about this chapter was very interesting but different in contrast to ww2, the chapter regarding ww2 talks about the mass genocide of jewish people enacted by the nazis, but in the chapter regarding ww1 it never talked about the genocide of nearly 1.5 armenian people by the ottoman empire, which needs to be talked about.

      Comment by Kara on September 22, 2021

      The word “the” is written twice in a row:

      As part of the the armistice, Allied forces followed the retreating Germans and occupied territories in the Rhineland to prevent Germany from reigniting war.

      Comment by John G Plencner on October 3, 2021

      At the end of the paragraph.  one thousand National Guard members(?), soldiers(?).  Definitely not units.

      Comment by Ann Mulhearn on October 5, 2021

      What about the draft in the Civil War? I don’t think “solely” is the best choice of words here. 🙂

  • 16. Capital and Labor (21 comments)

    • Comment by Erik on January 16, 2019

      I believe Bryan served in the US House, representing Nebraska, not “the Nebraska House of Representatives.”  Similarly, he was unsuccessful in his campaign for the US Senate, not “the Nebraska Senate.”

      Comment by Tom B on January 21, 2019

      typo: poise should read poised

      Comment by Steven Kite on January 24, 2019

      In the reference material section, the Industrial Workers of the World are mistakenly listed as the “International” Workers of the World.

      Comment by Brenda Mulchrone on April 13, 2019

      “In the summer of 1886, the campaign for an eight-hour day, long a rallying cry that united American laborers, culminated in a national strike on May 1, 1886.” What kind of sentence is this?  It’s like a run-on sentence made of sentence fragments.  Should “long” be “rang”?

      Comment by Brenda Mulchrone on April 13, 2019

      Nevermind. I get it.

      Comment by Brendan Joel Stanford on May 13, 2019

      should there be a comma?

      Comment by Damian Fisher on June 29, 2019

      The artist’s name is misspelled – should be Snyder not Synder

      Comment by Tomas Salas on October 19, 2019

      Paragraph 1 seems to have an editing error, as the second sentence does not make sense.

      It should possibly read as follows:

      “That year, mired in the stagnant economy that followed the bursting of the railroads’ financial bubble in 1873, rail lines slashed workers wages even as they reaped enormous government subsidies and paid shareholders lucrative stock dividends.”

      Honestly the sentence should possibly be broken down into multiple sentences, as it seems like a run-on sentence.

      Comment by Cody Barrozo on January 29, 2020

      Didn’t laborers at this time work roughly 16 hours a day, 6 days a week? This would calculate to over 90 hours a week, not 60.

      Comment by CHARLES FORDJOUR on January 30, 2020

      From it’s beginnings in the early to mid nineteenth century during the Industrial Revolution to the modern era of today, the labor movement has fought hard forming labor parties and labor laws to give the American worker the rights they deserve. The scene in this chapter shows the defiant labor movement(armless) being chased out by armed soldiers to quell out their demonstration.


      Comment by CHARLES FORDJOUR on January 30, 2020

      [A month of chaos erupted. Strikers set fire to the city, destroying dozens of buildings, over a hundred engines, and over a thousand cars. In Reading, strikers destroyed rail property and an angry crowd bombarded militiamen with rocks and bottles. The militia fired into the crowd, killing ten. A general strike erupted in St. Louis, and strikers seized rail depots and declared for the eight-hour day and the abolition of child labor. ]

      I think , the use of armed  men to deal with the railway strikers is not the best and killing of innocent people; the best way however is to use dialogue between the workers union leaders’ and the government representative to make tranquility and sanity prevail

      Comment by CHARLES FORDJOUR on January 31, 2020

      The Federal government actively promoted industrial and agriculture development. It enacted high tariffs that protected American industry from foreign competition, granted land to railroad company to encourage construction, and used the army to remove foreigners from Western land by farmers and mining company’s to pave way greater achievements.


      Comment by Neil Oatsvall on June 2, 2020

      Isn’t this five years? 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, and 1902

      Comment by Daniel on June 24, 2020

      Just a grammatical error. On sentence #4 it should be “among” investors, manufacturers, and retailers, not “between.”

      Comment by TracyAnn Larson on July 10, 2020

      Missing word “it” at the end of the second to last sentence: Republican dominance maintained a high protective tariff, an import tax designed to shield American businesses from foreign competition; southern planters had vehemently opposed this policy before the war but now could do nothing to prevent. 

      Comment by Andrew Paul on August 23, 2020

      This appears to be the first reference to the Gilded Age, and the term shows up a lot. How about defining it?

      Comment by Mark Benbow on January 27, 2021

      I see the error about Bryan has STILL not been fixed.  The sentence “He soon won election to the Nebraska House of Representatives, where he served for two terms. Although he lost a bid to join the Nebraska Senate,” is incorrect. He was a member of the US House of Representatives, and was unsuccessful in his bid to be elected to the US Senate.    Also, there is no such thing as a Nebraska “house of Representatives” as they have a unicameral legislature.

      Comment by Desiree' Findley on August 24, 2021

      Industry has its place, but the rich only became richer and the great divide if inequality continues today.  Donald Trump.

      Comment by Desiree' Findley on August 24, 2021

      Social Darwinism is rough, but someone has to be on top.

      Comment by Desiree' Findley on August 24, 2021

      Social Darwinism should be encouraged, but their should be a limit

      Comment by Emily Harger on August 25, 2021

      typo: poise should read poised

  • 18. Life in Industrial America (21 comments)

    • Comment by Bligh on January 28, 2019

      I suggest a word change in this sentence:

      Immigrant communities published newspapers in dozens of languages and purchased spaces to maintain their arts, languages, and traditions alive.

      Either remove the word “alive’ or change the word “maintain” to “keep.” Such a change will improve the readability of the passage. Thank you.


      Comment by Sean Dinces on February 4, 2019

      This paragraph should mention and define patronage so students reading this will wonder why in the world machine bosses engaged in these types of “mutual aid” activities.

      Comment by Stacey Young on February 10, 2019

      There is a typo towards the end of the paragraph:

      “A Russian Jewish family persecuted in European pogroms…” should be programs.

      Comment by SJR on August 1, 2019

      “Pogroms” is the correct word here. A pogrom is an organized riot/massacre. I’ve only ever heard the term used in this specific situation, where Europeans planned the wholesale destruction of a Jewish community.

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      The supposedly “new South” grew in industrialization but remained heavily segregated giving the worst jobs to African Americans

      Lynching was fine in the South if members believed that an African American made a crime they would publicly kill them

      Presented the KKK as vigilantes that assist the community -> romanticized the KKK

      The South grew in constructing Railroads

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      John D. Rockefeller was the richest man in America but also hated & mistrusted because many believed that he got his money illegally by immoral business Clergyman Washington Gladden protested to accept the 100,000 Rockefeller donated to the American Board of  Commissioner for Foreign Missions because he didn’t trust his dirty money

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      The board president Samuel Capen did not defend Rockefeller but he did say it was a gift and they can’t asses the origin of every donation but the debate shook Capen
      The tainted Money debate that Gladden had with the board of commissioners and the rising income inequality rose concerning questioning about the morals of the new industrial United States
      Religions were confused with who they would support either the or the disempowered?
      Steel Magnate Andres Carnegie popularized the idea of a “Gospel of Wealth” which was the rich to donate to charity to make up for the inequality of of income between the rich & Poor.
      Eventually American Churches adapted themselves to the new industrial order Even Gladden who debated against Rockefeller’s money started to accept it
      Meanwhile many churches questioned the COMPATIBILITY of large fortunes with Christian Values

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      The economic and social changes of the late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth centuries challenged traditional norms
      the increase in urbanization,immigration, and advancements in Science and technology, patterns of consumption and the new availability of goods and awareness of economic inequality brought a drive to make change traditional gender and sexual norms
      Many women carried campaigns that lasted long int the past fought for equal rights
      Many women became activist and targeted municipal reforms, launched campaigns and above all HIGHLIGHTED the suffrage movement

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Urbanization and immigration fueled anxiety for old social mores and created tension for these old policies and so called “norms”
      The unpredictability of urban spaces created opportunities for in particular female sexuality and for both male and female sexual experimentation. Along with this a spectrum of orientations and gender identities
      Young women who went against social norms such as premarital sex where considered feeble minded: they lack the normal ability to make conscious decisions. Some women would even be considered clinically insane rather than them making a decision willingly
      Woman fashion changed as well by loosing physical constraints like corsets and ad hemlines rose (Length of dresses)

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      While many women fought for equality others worked to uplift each other. Women’s work against alcohol increased the temperance into one of the prominent moral reforms of the period
      Middle class typically protestant women dislike alcohol because of their feminine virtues,Christina sentiment and protective role in the family and home.
      Jane Adams and settlement house workers sought to include a middle class education on immigrant and working class women through the establishment of settlement homes
      Other reformers shared a “scientific motherhood”-> the science of hygiene was deployed as a method of to both uplift and moralize particularly of working class and immigrant women

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s shorty story “The Yellow Wallpaper” challenged the social role of women and she criticized( the Victorian psychological remedies: the ways doctors practice therapy)
      While women are working towards equality man are worrying about their masculinity and their role in society neurologist George Bared even coined a medical term “neurasthenia” for a new emasculated condition that was marked by depression,indigestion,hypochondria and extreme nervousness

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Churches worried that women would influence the church and change the image of Jesus as a strong carpenter to a mushy and sweetly woman like man this was said by Walter Rauschenbusch
      Muscular Christianity sought out to strengthen young man. churches even created gymnasiums to strengthen their boys. Young Men Christian Associations who coined the term bodybuilding and other invented the sports of basketball and volleyball. These organization were built to strengthen young man.
      I think it’s to increase there’s ego or “Masculinity”

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Muscular Christianity was about even more than building strong bodies and minds
      Age men were encouraged to embrace a particular vision of masculinity connected with rising tides of nationalism,militarism and imperialism
      During the Spanish American War in 1898 Teddy Roosevelt and his Rough riders idealized the image of a tall,strong, vile, and fit American
      Roosevelt and others believed this image of masculinity would preserve the American Race’s superiority against foreign foes and the effeminizing effects of civilization

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Luna Park one of the original amusement parks on Brooklyn’s famous Coney Island Attracted Amusement Hungry Americans

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Between 1880 ans 1920 Vaudevillla featured comedians,musicians,actors,juggler and other talents that could captivate an audience
      Vaudeville was considered a family friendly entertainment even though the made racist jokes on African American and immigrants
      The renowned Palace theatre in New York City signaled true stardom for many performers Charlie Chaplin and Magician Harry Houdini made names for themselves on the Vaudeville circuit

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Edison pioneered two technologies the Phonograph and motion pictures. It revolutionized the world. it became a device for music and other factors
      Edison thought it was going to be used for dictation,recording audio letter,preserving speeches and dying words of great men, producing talking clocks, or teaching elocution
      By the turn of the century American were purchasing phonographs for home use
      Phonograph parlors were places where people could pay a nickle to heard a piece or music

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Edison decided in 1888 to develop an instrument which does for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear
      The inventions are called a kinetograph and a viewer a kinetoscope. Many entertainers purchased this device all over the world. It drew many from arcades to movie theaters.
      Most of the content that was displayed was boxing,baseball, and even Indian dances. The content only last for a couple of minuets

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Designers of the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago built the White City in a neoclassical
      This type of style for the buildings, walkways, and landscapes brought more than 27 million people to Chicago helping to establish the ideology of American exceptionalism
      After enduring four bloody years of warfare and a strained, decade long effect to reconstruct the defeated South, the United States abandoned itself to industrial development. Businesses expanded in scale and scope.
      during this time the US started to change socially. Industrialization took over. The South Jim Crow Laws decreased the US started to change and create more opportunities

      Comment by Adam on January 16, 2021

      Comment by mark benbow on February 1, 2021

      Comment by Irwin Singer on September 10, 2021

      Spellling error. In 2nd part of sentence, ‘ Rose Cohen was born in Russia in 1880 as Rahel Golub. She immigrated to the United States in 1892 and lived in a Russian Jewish neighborhood in New York’s Lower East Side. Her, she writes about her encounter with the world outside of her ethnic neighborhood.’. It should be ‘Here’ not ‘Her’

  • 10. Religion and Reform (19 comments)

    • Comment by Emmaline R Avis on November 8, 2018

      Mormon should be changed Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. This was and still is the real name of the religion.

      Comment by Catherine Cirotti on April 8, 2019

      Spelling correction: runaway

      Comment by ty murray on April 8, 2019

      honestly taught me nothing, horrible website, never to be used again. #disapointing

      Comment by Tyler Soutas on June 2, 2019

      This is a very shallow summary of the life of Joseph Smith and the impact he had on religion in America.

      A few clarifications—the rites he instituted in the temples were not “secret” as it says. They were held very sacred to members of the church, and were not to be shared outside the temple because of its sacredness.

      When this mentions polygamy, it mentions nothing about why it was instituted among members of this church —the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (not the “Mormon Church”). Polygamy was very distasteful to most members of the church. They were only willing to participate in it because they believed it was a commandment that god restored once again—a commandment which he had given to many other biblical prophets. Joseph Smith never claimed ownership of the idea of polygamy, but that he received divine revelation and commandment from God to institute it among the people for the purpose of accelerating the growth of a righteous people. This is why they did it, not because they were experimenting sexually.

      The way this paragraph is worded is mildly offensive

      Comment by Tyler Soutas on June 2, 2019

      Also, Joseph Smith did not borrow the idea of sending out missionaries from the Methodists. He was a prophet who drew upon revelation from God, not from existing religious organizations. He also drew inspiration from the New Testament, The Book of Mormon, and from revelations given to him (since he was a prophet) which are now compiled and known as the Doctrine and Covenants.

      Comment by nancy robertson on February 19, 2020

      It is Mary Lyon

      NOT Mary Lyons.

      Comment by Nick on June 10, 2020

      Please show more respect towards The Church Of Jesus Christ of latter day saints.  There are many things people say about the church that are not ture.  I hope you don’t want to be like those people.

      Comment by Nick on June 10, 2020

      Yes the churches name never started as the name mormon.


      Comment by Caitlin Lawrence on July 18, 2020

      Please add at the end of this paragraph that polygamy is NOT practiced by Mormons anymore. It is widely misunderstood that past polygamy practices by Joseph Smith and his followers are still popular today, when they are not. It is actually forbidden in Mormonism. It is specifically stated in the Mormon document “Family: A Proclamation to the World” that marriage shall only be between one man and one woman.

      Comment by Caitlin Lawrence on July 20, 2020

      Thank you for this, Tyler. I strongly agree. I think this paragraph was offensive, and it made it seem that polygamy is still being practiced by Mormons today. Many people nowadays have the misconception that it is, when it is STRICTLY FORBIDDEN against. You are right about Joseph Smith. He was confused and lost before he went into the forest and received revelation from God. The Godhead gave him the knowledge that he needed, which he used to found Mormonism.

      Comment by Emma Wilson on November 16, 2020

      Please include in this that polygamy was not practiced by Joseph Smith or any other member of the Church Of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints for SEXUAL REASONS. Polygamy was only practiced by said members in order to help and provide for sisters in need. ALSO, as asked by current prophet Russell M. Nelson, it is asked that Mormons be referred to as “Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints” because, we are christians and do not worship Mormon.

      Comment by Daniel Almeda on December 1, 2020

      “Many of these different types of response”

      CHANGE TO: “Many of these different types of responseS”

      or “Many of these different responses”

      –> Add and -S to “response”

      Comment by Daniel Almeda on December 1, 2020

      Voluntarily Benevolent

      Voluntary should be an adverb –>

      BTW, I’m a big fan of the textbook and all. I use it for school. Do you have a merch shop online? If not, I highly recommend that you should open one.

      Comment by Hoang on December 11, 2020

      “Increasingly, for example, abolitionists aided runaway slaves established international antislavery networks to pressure the United States to abolish slavery.”

      Should be an “and” in between slaves and established? Or somehow indicate they’re two different things.

      Comment by Rebecca Brenner Graham on February 12, 2021

      Mary Lyon! Lyon not Lyons! Anyone who visited Mount Holyoke will know this.

      Comment by Rebecca Brenner Graham on February 12, 2021

      Hello to another historian product of Mount Holyoke?!

      Comment by Ben Craig on July 15, 2021

      In addition to the others’ points, I would like to add that most early members did not have multiple wives. If they did, they usually only had one extra wife and that was because the church asked them to take another. Also, the people who had lots of wives did not necessarily consummate all of their marriages, they only had children with a fraction of their wives. The other marriages were for caretaking.


      Also, the others have said this, but please add something in here about the fact that plural marriage has been discontinued for over a century in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which does not include the split-off sects, which are not part of the Church. This text seems to imply that plural marriage still continues in the Church, which it most certainly does not. I should know since I’m a member.


      Lastly, in the following paragraph, the term “sexual experiments” is insulting, designating 1800s Latter-day Saint plural marriage as a sexual experiment when it required immense sacrifices that very few, if any, of us will ever understand. The emotional, mental, physical, and financial stress of caring for so many family members is likely impossible for the average modern American to understand.

      Comment by Ben Craig on July 15, 2021

      Please view and address the comments for paragraph 14.

      Comment by Chris Tiegreen on September 20, 2021

      I think it would be more accurate to say “human decisions” here rather than “human action.” Methodists, Baptists, and most other Protestant groups emphasized the role of belief, not behavior, in salvation (though behavior was seen as a product of belief) — the conversion experience or moment of commitment was prioritized over actions.

  • 09. Democracy in America (18 comments)

    • Comment by Porter on October 24, 2018

      There is no conclusion for this chapter. All of the other chapters so far, have one.

      Comment by Ryan Facey on November 5, 2018

      This chapter absolutely needs a detailed recounting of Jackson’s Indian Removal policy, culminating in the trail of tears. It’s a huge whole in what is presented in the chapter.

      Comment by Megan Cherry on November 9, 2018

      The Trail of Tears is mentioned later in chapter 12, but I agree with Ryan that it would be far better to include that information here.  Perhaps it could be briefly recapped in chapter 12 but presented in depth here?

      Comment by David Salmanson on November 27, 2018

      I’d love to add a sentence either here or in paragraph 10 that connects to the image in terms of the rise of political parties and, well, partying and campaigning.

      Comment by David Salmanson on November 27, 2018

      Is this the place to mention the spoils system/rotation in office?  Postal clerks were generally the only source of hard currency, especially in the frontier so the democratization of gvt. work regardless of qualifications sets up the bank war.

      Comment by Stephen Campbell on July 7, 2019

      Can I make a suggestion for an additional entry to the Recommended Reading section? Stephen Campbell has recently published a monograph on the Bank War with the University Press of Kansas. It is one of the few monographs to come out on this subject in the last forty years and it is also one of the most detailed. I do believe that reading this monograph closely will improve the section on the Bank War for this chapter. Thank you for your consideration.

      Comment by Steven Wagner on July 29, 2019

      The date range in the title of this primary source should read “1819-1820,” not 1920 as appears here and on the page with the document itself.

      Comment by Dawn Karvis on September 30, 2019

      [ He defended the impulsive general, arguing that he had had been forced to act.]

      Double “had”

      Comment by Chase Goldberg Friedman on January 7, 2020

      Her first husband never committed suicide, an autopsy later revealed he died of pnemonia.

      Comment by April Haynes on January 18, 2020

      The members of the Boston and Lynn Female Antislavery Societies were hardly considered “respectable.” They were mobbed, ridiculed, and race-baited. New England clergymen disputed that “both men and women” should speak out against slavery, as did many abolitionists. In emphasizing the middle-class status of some abolitionist women, this paragraph misrepresents the movement as part mainstream “middle-class culture,” which was not at all the case in the 1830s. 

      AY chapter alludes to some of these issues and cites much of the relevant literature. This paragraph contradicts that information.

      Comment by April Haynes on January 18, 2020

      AY chapter 10, that is

      Comment by Joseph A Villano on February 18, 2020

      I realize that the topic is Democracy in America, but a major section on the Jackson Administration is missing. I am referring to the section dealing with the Native Americans. I believe that the topic should be included in Chapter 9. Jackson’s interactions with the Native Americans does show his character of the times, and his conflict with John Marshall and the Supreme Court, his concepts for the executive branch and his dealing with judicial l branch.

      The rest of the chapter is very well done and useful in class. The documents, especially the veto message is important.

      Comment by Jonathan Green on February 20, 2020

      The year is incorrect on the source as well as the document. It should read 1819-1820.

      Comment by Bob Backer on October 30, 2020

      This is the most messed up and negative textbook I have ever read. It is full of opinions and not the professional technical writing expected of a textbook and tries to tell the reader how they should feel about certain subjects. It hardly covers any positive aspects of american history while filling the reader full of negativity as to the dark past of the US. We get it. The past had a rocky and not so great foundation.

      Comment by Ash Lew on October 30, 2020

      Comment by Ann on August 1, 2021

      JQA’s election and presidency needs more than a passing glance. At least, mention that he named Clay as S of State, which was essentially designating him as the perceived successor, hence the “corrupt bargain.” Also – Martin Van Buren and the Tariff of Abominations are directly linked to the Nullification Crisis. Why no discussion of how he used is position in the House to completely derail Adams and set-up Jackson?

      Jackson was a transformative president, for better or for worse, but I think this is rather… much. And yet, not enough. The fact there is no discussion of his Indian Removal policy and his reaction to Cherokee v. Ga is disappointing.

      Comment by Ann on August 1, 2021

      My previous comment was supposed to be on Paras 32 and 33. 🙂

      Comment by John Deppel on September 30, 2021

      When the Missouri Compromise was engineered, largely by Clay, he was a member of the House of Representatives and speaker of the House. He was not a senator at the time, though he was a senator before and after his terms as representative and speaker.

  • 28. The Unraveling (18 comments)

    • Comment by Anon on September 9, 2018

      Repeated sentence

      Comment by Moekenzip roeski on November 2, 2018

      Owo whats THIS *notices your bulge*

      Comment by Albert on November 6, 2018

      “Former one-term Georgia governor Jimmy Carter…”. This is true, but it implies that Carter lost his run for a second term. He was term-limited so he couldn’t run. I would strike the reference to one term.

      Comment by E on April 17, 2019

      Robert F. Kennedy was killed, not Robert F. Kennedy Jr., his son.

      Comment by Joselyn Thomas on April 28, 2019

      The paragraph ends with the word detente” with a closed quote sign. Just a typographical error.

      Comment by Michele Rotunda on May 6, 2019

      Would be useful to mention the Equal Pay Act specifically.

      Comment by Chris Rutkowsky on July 24, 2019

      The last 2 sentences read “Americans cringed at Nick Ut’s wrenching photograph of a naked Vietnamese child fleeing an American napalm attack. More and more American voices came out against the war.”

      Surely the photograph in question should be included, at the very least, in the Primary Sources that accompany this chapter. 

      Comment by Nick Brooks on November 20, 2019

      In regard to the photo “The Soiling of Old Glory,” Ted Landsmark was not a black teenager. He was a civil rights lawyer. His assailant was a white teenager. Consider: https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2008/03/12/soiling-old-glory

      Comment by Nick Brooks on November 20, 2019

      In regard to the “Soiling of Old Glory,” please note that the victim, Ted Landsmark, was not a black teenager but an adult Civil Rights lawyer. His assailant was a white teenager.

      Consider: https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2008/03/12/soiling-old-glory

      Comment by Anthony Saia on January 13, 2020

      [biker gang]

      outlaw motorcycle club

      Comment by David Evans on March 31, 2020

      To my knowledge Ted Landmark was a civil rights lawyer, and 30 years old when the picture was captured. The protester could possibly have been in his teens.

      Comment by Holly Golightly on April 30, 2020

      Robert F. Kennedy was killed in June of 1968, not Robert F. Kennedy, his son.

      Comment by Holly Golightly on April 30, 2020

      Not Robert F. Kennedy, Jr* typo.

      Comment by Nate Belcik on September 23, 2020

      In the recommended reading list there are no books about the Vietnam War.

      Comment by Joanie Mackowski on November 28, 2020

      The final sentence in this paragraph implies that the Stones knew that Hunter had been murdered and that they played on anyway. There’s no need to make the situation worse than it was. They did not know that Hunter had been murdered. Even flipping the clauses would help some: “As the Stones played, Angels stomped Hunter’s body into the ground.”

      Comment by Desislava Pedeva-Fazlic on December 3, 2020

      Nixon visited China in 1972.

      Comment by Daylan Sears on April 20, 2021

      Merle Haggard’s “Okie from Muskogee” is likely satire and should be treated more like it is in this passage. Mentioning Haggard as confronting the counterculture through this song would not be fair. Haggard said that “We wrote it to be satirical, originally, but then people latched on to it and it really turned into this song that looked into the mindset of people so opposite of who and where we were.” The first line of the song says “we don’t smoke marijuana in Muskogee” and this is coming from Haggard, who was known to smoke marijuana. If Archie Bunker is accurately said to mock revolutionary middle-aged white men than Haggard’s satirical song should be treated in a similar tone.

      Comment by Sean on July 20, 2021

      This paragraph is a different size font than the rest of the page.

  • 05. The American Revolution (17 comments)

    • Comment by Garrett Bowers on October 10, 2018

      Good Morning,

      The inclusion of the phrase “salutary neglect” in this paragraph or in paragraph #9 of the same chapter referencing British colonial policy would be helpful. The phrase can help students name the colonial policy more succinctly and provides a utilitarian short form for them to use in writing/referring to the time period.

      Thank you all–the Yawp is everything good about academics!


      Comment by Pat on December 15, 2018

      Just a style thing: “throughout the colonies” appears twice in quick succession and three times in this paragraph. 11 times in the chapter total.

      Comment by Sean Dinces on February 3, 2019

      This paragraph is confusing. The previous paragraph says, correctly, that the Tea Act exempted the EIC from having import duties applied to its Tea. So the the phrase “colonists would be paying the duty” needs clarification.

      Comment by Sean Dinces on February 3, 2019

      In other words, needs clarification that EIC did not have to pay import duties but purchasers of tea still had to pay standard duties on their purchases.

      Comment by Patrick Hightower on September 13, 2019

      [in the colonies]

      This seems redundant as the sentence begins with “Colonial”

      Comment by Steve Rugila on September 17, 2019

      “Colonial political culture in the colonies”

      This is redundant, it should be “Political culture in the colonies” or “Colonial political culture”

      Comment by Paul Wallig on November 23, 2019

      This and the first sentence of Para 48 that the duty had to be paid when the ship was unloaded are confusing.  Para 46 says the tea was without duties; para 48 said duites had to be paid.

      Comment by Benjamin Remillard on June 8, 2020

      There doesn’t seem to be any mention of the indigenous peoples who sided with the Americans during the conflict. This perpetuates the misinformed notion that Native Americans only aligned with the British, which effectively wipes them out of American history, as well as those peoples’ claims to helping shape American history. By including that Native Americans also sided with the Americans (which included members of the Oneida, Narragansett, Passamaquoddy, and Wappinger communities and tribes, among others) it presents students with a more complicated version of the past. The fact that the new nation did not honor its wartime relationships with those tribes, and the fact that some of those communities remained along the east coast and endured to this day adds further complexity to our understanding of the past and its legacy on the present. See Colin Calloway, The American Revolution in Indian Country, and Eric Grundset (ed), Forgotten Patriots: African American and American Indian Patriots in the Revolutionary War for more on this

      Comment by Alex on September 14, 2020

      “with almost fifteen million pounds of it *in* stored in warehouses” typo in this sentence. First “in” does not belong

      Comment by Lauren Baptiste on September 29, 2020

      In the second quoted phrase from Benjamin Rush, the first person should be eliminated and replaced with third person with verb agreement in order to maintain pronoun consistency within the clause.

      Replace “emotions that I cannot describe” with “emotions that [he could not] describe”.

      Comment by Jonathan Parker on October 1, 2020

      “The founding fathers instigated and fought a revolution to secure independence from Britain but they did not fight that revolution to create a democracy.”  That was probably the primary reason they fought.  To have a democracy.  What other reason did they fight except to get free from Britains tyrannical rule and set up their own democracy?  That statement is just nonsensical.

      Comment by Finn Graff on October 2, 2020

      britain isnt real :/

      Comment by Joe on October 23, 2020

      Typo in caption: “as as”

      Comment by Editor on October 23, 2020

      Fixed. Thanks!

      Comment by Dr. Rosier on November 30, 2020

      What did Benjamin Rush mean when he said, “Upon seeing the King’s throne in the House of Lords, he felt as if he walked on sacred ground, with emotions I cannot describe”?

      Comment by Chris Phlegar on March 1, 2021

      Publication date is in the future:

      Berkin, Carol. Revolutionary Mothers: Women in the Struggle for America’s Independence. New York: Knopf, 20056.

      Comment by abigail medina on October 7, 2021

      [legislative resistance by elites, economic resistance by merchants, and popular protest by common colonists.]


  • 06. A New Nation (16 comments)

    • Comment by Serena Zabin on September 7, 2018

      The bibliography seems to have been pasted twice.

      Comment by Bryana Wallace on January 29, 2019

      Americans goal was coming true: “that the United States would become a diverse but cohesive prosperous nation”

      Comment by Bryana Wallace on January 29, 2019

      new nation was having difficulties and tried to resolve them by putting emphasis on “unity and cooperation”

      Even the Constitution was controversial and tried to strengthen the government to help resist internal conflicts

      Comment by Bryana Wallace on January 29, 2019

      farmers were in a great debt in western Massachusetts and was increased by weak local and national economies

      farmers were afraid of getting shut down by their creditors so they fought for their property

      Comment by Bryana Wallace on January 29, 2019

      soldiers helped fight as well

      Comment by Bryana Wallace on January 29, 2019

      The farmers and soldiers were named the “Shaysites”.
      They were led by a veteran named Daniel Shays
      They resorted to tactics used by the patriots before the Revolution

      Comment by Bryana Wallace on January 29, 2019

      governor, James Bowdoin believed that the Shaysites ere rebels who wanted to rule the government through mob violence.

      Comment by Denise Garay on February 27, 2019

      Didn’t we learn that Abraham Lincoln made thanksgiving a national holiday??

      Comment by Daniel Brown on May 14, 2019

      I believe you need to expound more on the New Jersey plan to the students. After all, prior to the Great Compromise the delegates debated for two weeks over a bicameral (Virginia Plan) and a unicameral (New Jersey Plan).  At least give the credit to the person that presented it to the Convention, William Paterson.

      Comment by Daniel Brown on May 14, 2019

      This would be a great place to discuss more of the Bill of Rights. All in all you have barely provided a sentence to what Rights the Bill protects. Especially in today’s political climate and the fact that a majority of High School students do not understand the Bill of Rights, namely the ninth and tenth amendments.

      Comment by Paul wallig on November 24, 2019

      what was the illuminati scare?

      Comment by Dr. Monica L. Butler on June 9, 2020

      The final statement, “this compromise also counted a slave as three fifths of a person for representation and tax purposes,” does not accurately represent the Constitution. This “compromise” counted three-fifths of a state’s enslaved population, not three-fifths of an individual.

      Comment by Nayan Sapers on October 15, 2020

      Technical error – Unnecessary parentheses at the end of paragraph

      Comment by Nayan Sapers on October 15, 2020

      On paragraph 20

      Comment by Rebecca Brenner Graham on October 22, 2020

      Jewish Americans did not have rabbis yet in the early republic.

      Comment by Chris B on August 2, 2021

      This needs to be reworded. The Constitution expressly says that the slave trade will end in 1808, but the paragraph claims it ended for those reasons. The way it is worded makes it seem like the writers of the Constitution had some prescient knowledge of the future, i.e. “These three things are going to happen in 1808, so we will allow the slave trade to continue until then.”

  • 07. The Early Republic (15 comments)

    • Comment by Catherine Seok on September 9, 2018

      typos: James Peale’s name and “responsible” are spelled incorrectly

      Comment by RIYA SHARMA on October 18, 2018

      Should say: roles as wives and mothers, not as mothers. 

      Additionally: typos as listed above.

      Comment by Loveday T. on May 13, 2019

      Shouldn’t the Republicans actually be called the “Democratic-Republicans,” since the actual Republican party wasn’t started until the 1850s to combat slavery?

      Comment by Noel Dionisio on October 3, 2019

      “White supremacist” – presentism

      “white supremacist” wasn’t a title/term used during that time period, should be changed to “white superficial beliefs/assumptions” or something of the sort

      Comment by David Ravens on March 10, 2020

      Replace with was

      Comment by Karen J Downey on August 1, 2020

      David, the verb should be the 3rd person plural “were.” It should agree with the subject “some,” which refers back to “changes” in the previous sentence. The verb should not agree with “victory.”

      Comment by Johanna Hume on August 2, 2020

      It sounds as if Lawrence is commanding his men to surrender, and the sentence must be re-read to be understood.

      This is clearer: Yet the Americans did not give up. Lawrence commanded them, “Tell the men…

      Comment by Johanna Hume on August 2, 2020

      Did the authors mean to use the United Kingdom in this paragraph?

      Comment by Margaret Adams on October 6, 2020

      [As the decades passed, white Americans were forced to acknowledge that if the black population was indeed whitening, it resulted from interracial sex and not the environment.] I think it is immoral of this textbook to call it “interracial sex.” It was rape and sexual violence perpetuated on Black women.


      Comment by HeavyTanker on October 6, 2020

      Every time Federalist is mentioned, it should be replaced with Democrats, or Liberals. They’re basically the same.

      Comment by Noah Godard on October 14, 2020

      No – “were” is correct, since the subject (“some”) is plural.

      Comment by Gray Nocjar on October 30, 2020

      George Catlin’s surname is spelled wrong in the second sentence (Catlin instead of Caitlin).

      Comment by Gray on October 30, 2020

      Awkward first sentence.  Tecumseh convinced people from the Northwest and Northeast probably.

      Comment by Daniel McEllin on November 8, 2020

      The above errors persist two years on.

      Comment by Jessica Tyson on October 11, 2021

      “Not soon thereafter, Tecumseh fell…” soon probably be “Soon thereafter…”

  • 19. American Empire (15 comments)

    • Comment by Paul Villa on January 23, 2019

      Mahan was arguably the most influential American strategist of the 19th and early 20th Centuries. It would be helpful to include a selection from his work, “The Influence of Sea Power upon History” in the primary sources for this chapter.

      Comment by Walker Robins on April 10, 2019

      This paragraph basically reproduces the content of paragraph 39.

      Comment by Heath Madsen on June 18, 2019

      “For instance” used twice in close proximity. Consider revision.

      Perhaps: “In spite of their christian motivations, some Missionaries worked alongside business interests. American missionaries in Hawai’i, for example, obtained large tracts of land on which they started lucrative sugar plantations.”

      Comment by Ryan Facey on June 21, 2019

      I think the topic of Hawaiian annexation needs to be addressed with more detail. Sanford B. Dole, King Kalākaua, The Bayonet Constitution, Queen Liliuokalani and other details deserve to be discussed.

      Comment by Aims McGuinness on July 27, 2019

      The separation of Panama from Colombia took place in 1903, not 1901.

      Comment by Kate on January 22, 2020

      Could put the time  period of when the chapter takes place in the introduction. Ex: 1990 – 2000

      Comment by Deirdre Lannon on January 31, 2020

      Please consider adding more information about Puerto Rico. In this and most other history books, it is simply listed along with Guam and the Philippines as the spoils of the War of 1898. It ignores the fact that unlike the Philippines, Puerto Rico has remained connected to the United States, with a proscribed citizenship since 1917. The US-PR relationship has left the island in limbo since the Insular Cases defined as being “foreign in a domestic sense,” and it faces the same problem in academic history. It is neither claimed by Latin Americanists, nor by United States historians. It is time to acknowledge the intrinsic connection between the US and PR, its imperial nature, and its catastrophic consequences.

      Comment by Demika on September 21, 2020

      I HATE this picture!  Just tired of constantly having to see this!!!!!

      Comment by nancy robertson on October 17, 2020

      Caption is misleading (or just wrong):  Although Philippines, Porto Rico (i.e. Puerto Rico) and Cuba had been controlled by Spain, Hawaii and the Isthmus of Panama had not been.  Hawaii was an independent country before annexation and the isthmus was part of Colombia and we intervened so that Panama could be independent of Colombia (but beholdened to the US).  The date of the cartoon, 4/26/1914, places it shortly after the completion of the Panama Canal on 4/1/914.

      Comment by Tara Bruton on January 13, 2021

      Navy And Military titles are supposed to be capitalized.

      Comment by Tara Bruton on January 13, 2021

      All branches of military are to be capitalized.

      Comment by Duaa on February 5, 2021

      What happened after the American

      Civil War

      Comment by Christopher Menking on September 14, 2021

      I agree that more on Puerto Rico. My students get a lot out of the Philippines information and documents. I would love to see similar inclusions for Puerto Rico, either here or in a later chapter.

      Comment by Eric on September 20, 2021

      It seems somewhat relevant that the US ambassador to Mexico before Woodrow Wilson came in office was a supporter of Huerta/tacitly encouraging Madero’s removal due in part to Madero refusing to listen to US orders.

      Comment by Hisham Ettayebi on October 15, 2021

      [the United States expanded on a long history of exploration, trade, and cultural exchange to practice something that looked remarkably like empire. ]



  • 08. The Market Revolution (14 comments)

    • Comment by Maggie G. on May 10, 2019

      [dozens of slates]

      minor typo – should be “slaves”

      Comment by Ryan Facey on July 12, 2019

      Text Says Tauten, Maine (which I don’t think has ever existed). The referenced source clearly says Tauton, Ma.

      Comment by Thomas Phillips on October 20, 2019

      Correct to “and a new, more-commercial”

      Comment by Malinda Marcus on October 25, 2019

      The 5th sentence should read, “through institutions such as the House of Refuge in New York City…”

      Comment by Issac Zheng on November 12, 2019

      Which period? Perhaps provide a date or timespan, as that would help give context

      Comment by Kevin Back on July 3, 2020

      ‘They earned cash for what they had previously consumed; they purchased the goods they had previously made or went without.”

      Should be.

      They earned cash for what they had previously consumed; they purchased the goods they had previously made or gone without.

      Comment by Karen J Downey on August 1, 2020

      Delete “and.”

      Comment by Karen J Downey on August 1, 2020

      Change But to However,

      Comment by Karen J Downey on August 1, 2020

      Delete and

      Comment by Jacob Hiest on November 4, 2020

      The initial vestiges of industrialization appeared in the United States in 1790, when Samuel Slater opened a British-style textile factory in Rhode Island.

      Comment by Jacob Hiest on November 4, 2020

      While most historical accounts place the start of the full-scale American industrial revolution at either 1820 or 1870, factory labor and entrepreneurial innovation, such as the Slater Mill, were the driving forces of industrialization.

      Comment by Simon Laney on November 5, 2020

      Second to last sentence, locus should probably be replaced with focus.

      Comment by Lowri-Ann Millings on September 20, 2021

      “Prostitutes and con men could look like regular honest Americans.”

      Equating sex workers to con men is distasteful in our current social state. Sex work is still work and should be respected as such. Making sex workers the antonym of “regular honest Americans” is distasteful.

      I would suggest just saying con men and leaving “prostitutes” out so you don’t disrespect sex work in order to get the point communicated.

      Comment by Pussy on October 19, 2021

      Sex is good

  • 04. Colonial Society (14 comments)

    • Comment by Thomas Kidd on September 4, 2018

      The sermon was delivered in Enfield, Mass/Conn., not Northampton.

      Comment by Micah Rueber on September 6, 2018

      The line “15 to 20 percent of Pennsylvania’s colonial population was enslaved by 1750” is not supported by the reference, which shows that approximately 2% of PA residents were enslaved.

      Comment by Cody Boushey on January 28, 2019

      I believe the two women are named “hypocrisy” and “deceit”

      Comment by Sean Dinces on February 2, 2019

      My students have been pretty confused by this paragraph b/c it makes little distinction between trade regulations pre-1764 and post-1764. Seems like there should be at least some mention that the Sugar Act was in large part about better forcing existing duties through Admiralty courts, etc.

      Comment by Sean Dinces on February 2, 2019

      Unclear which of the particular regulations listed were passed in 1705 and which came earlier.

      Comment by Karen Auman on May 9, 2019

      Georgia was founded by a philanthropic group, known as the Georgia Trustees. Oglethorpe was just one member and it is incorrect to label him the founder. The Georgia Trustees banned slavery.

      Comment by Eve Hepner on September 2, 2019

      I noticed a small error in the American Yawp version of Gibson Clough’s War Journal.
      Here is a short quote from the current Yawp version of Gibson Clough’s War Journal:
      “Here begins the New Year 1700”
      The actual version on the Essex Institute Historical Collections in the Internet Archive cited below the online version on this cite reads:
      “Here begins the New Year 1760”

      Comment by Albert on October 13, 2019

      The last sentence repeats the House of Burgese’s Slave codes and I find the last sentence redundant.

      Comment by Christopher Shelley on October 22, 2019

      This is really quite vague and dated. First, Fred Anderson’s excellent Crucible of War has become the go-to book for the French and Indian War. Second, there has been much recent scholarship on American colonists — both wealthy speculators and their agents (Washington was one of these agents) — giving land grant in the Ohio Forks region. These grants were what spurred the French to build forts, and this in turn provoked the English to respond. The Yawp text here is grossly over-simplified; especially considering that conflict between British administrators and American land speculators and squatters will be one of the major reasons for the Revolution. And we know this because it says so in the Declaration of Independence.

      Alan Taylor, American Revolutions.

      Colin Calloway, The Indian World of George Washington.

      Comment by Daniel on November 14, 2019

      While I have enjoyed reading the information provided, I believe that Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) and King George’s War (1744-1748) also need to be included into the text. These two wars not only assist in laying the foundation for the French and Indian War and showing continued conflict between the two empires, but also shows growing frustrations with the colonists and the British crown. The treaties of Utrecht and Aix-la-Chapelle could both be seen as a slap in the face of the colonists who fought hard to win territory, only to have to return it to the French.

      Comment by Marcos Leon on October 28, 2020

      Wow Now I am starting to understand how we as americans became the worst at creating a society of consumers who love to create waste.

      Comment by Joshua on December 18, 2020

      This is a generally nice chapter, but the key concept of “salutary neglect” is notably absent. The concept is particularly relevant when considering the consequences of Britain’s imposition of taxes following the Seven Years’ War.

      Comment by imposter on September 30, 2021


      Comment by The real imposter on October 3, 2021


  • 03. British North America (12 comments)

    • Comment by alaya on September 6, 2018

      it didnt even work…smh

      Comment by George W. Bush on September 21, 2018

      maybe please don go

      Comment by Elizabeth Nix on October 3, 2018

      In an open-book exam, I asked students to describe the difference between indentured servants and enslaved workers, and many students went to this paragraph to seek an explanation. The inclusion of “tithable” is confusing to students, and while this point in the legal history can be clarifying for scholars, it makes no sense to readers in an introductory survey course. Also, I never found a clear statement of the distinctions between indentured servants and enslaved workers, but maybe I have missed it.

      It might be more useful to include this specific reference to the notion of an African woman being “tithable” in a footnote, but to state the legal status of enslaved people more plainly.

      Comment by Anna Kiefer on January 4, 2019

      The Old Plantation has been attributed to John Rose, and is more closely dated to 1785-1790.


      Comment by Sean Dinces on January 30, 2019

      I think the Gallay reference should be in an endnote?

      Comment by Griffin Parker on May 9, 2020

      Unnecessary “the” before “even the Welsh”

      Comment by Jeanette Taber on August 3, 2020

      The Quinnipiac River and the Connecticut River are entirely separated by the Metacomet Ridge. They are not part of the same valley.

      Comment by Paul Trueblood on September 4, 2020

      Super weird that we say “powerful planters” for black people. pretty high key racist, also weird in the text it says “enslaved laborers” but when I click the edit feedback section it says “slaves” as it should. they were slaves. call them slaves, dont try to rewrite history so it isnt as bad. this is not history

      Comment by Rhonda Geraci on January 20, 2021

      The first paragraph is confusing. It talks about all the eighteenth century wars, and then in a later paragraph says, “By the eighteenth century, colonial governments discouraged the practice…” Is there a better way to write this so we can delineate the point you’re making?

      Comment by Jacob Valdez on February 2, 2021

      Unnecessary “the” before “even the Welsh”

      Comment by Sophia Solo on September 9, 2021

      How is there any difference between “enslaved laborer” and “slave”? The only difference there is a matter of syllables.

      Comment by Alyssa Russell on September 16, 2021

      I think, Snyder, Christine. Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010. would be a great addition to this section! 

  • 26. The Affluent Society (12 comments)

    • Comment by name on September 30, 2018

      fix “InIn” in the beginning of paragraph 67

      Comment by Cary Hartline on February 11, 2019

      At the beginning of the paragraph, there is an extra “In” at the beginning of the sentence.

      Comment by Sam Coppock on March 5, 2019

      There are two “In”s

      Comment by Caleb McDaniel on March 20, 2019

      I’m writing on behalf of an undergraduate class of students at Rice University, who suggest:

      “We would suggest elaborating on the final phrase ‘in the hands of those who opposed it.’ It’s an incredibly nebulous phrase that fails to identify the full scope of massive resistance to desegregation, and leaves it to the reader to assume who the opponents of integration were. The photographs demonstrate resistance, but one way to incorporate it into the text would be to cite the Southern Manifesto. Several high profile political figures including all but three southern senators were a part of the aforementioned massive resistance, and they should be identified (for details on this and their names, see James Patterson, Grand Expectations, Page 398). This will improve the narrative by telling a more accurate picture of how Brown v Board was received by the country.”

      Comment by Autumn on June 13, 2019

      In paragraph 67, there is an extra “In”  at the beginning.

      Comment by Adam Prince on November 27, 2019

      Recommended citation for this chapter is incorrect as it reads-

      Recommended Citation: Edwin C. Breeden et al., “The Cold War,” James McKay, ed., in The American Yawp, eds. Joseph Locke and Ben Wright (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2018).

      Comment by Najaela on April 8, 2020

      [Boiling v. Sharpe ]

      The case that is referred to is not Boiling v. Sharpe, it is Bolling v. Sharpe.

      Comment by Najaela on April 8, 2020

      [ InIn the 1930s, the economic ravages of the international economic catastrophe knocked the legs out from under the intellectual justifications for keeping government out of the economy]

      The inclusion of two “In”s at the beginning is a typo.

      Comment by Najaela on April 8, 2020

      [InIn the 1930s, the economic ravages of the international economic catastrophe knocked the legs out from under the intellectual justifications for keeping government out of the economy.]

      A suggestion I have is to include the word “the” between keeping and government.

      Comment by nancy robertson on April 28, 2020

      I know you have to careful not pack too many names in, and I think it wise to include Joanne Robinson and the Women’s Political Council.


      From wikipedia, quickly, the point that she “stayed up mimeographing 52,500 handbills calling for a boycott of the Montgomery bus system with the help of the chairman of the Alabama State College business department, John Cannon, and two students.”


      Including this event allows for a discussion of “social media” of the 1950s, establishing women at the heart of organizing the movement, AND emphasized how many people were involved (I would include the estimate of the number of people who boycotted the buses and stress they were average people: maids, teachers, janitors).

      Comment by Sean on July 20, 2021

      Double “in” at the beginning of this paragraph

      Comment by Laura Fisher on July 29, 2021
  • 27. The Sixties (12 comments)

    • Comment by Dave on December 18, 2018

      George Wallace did not by any means embody conservative views, he was a typical, racist liberal democrat. This needs to be changed immediately. This skewing of history books to fit an agenda bullshit needs to stop. Write the history as it happened. Stop being assholes, thanks. The democrats are the true racists from the beginning. They always have been and will continue to be.

      Comment by Bill Zeman on May 3, 2019

      The most prominent pre-UFWA Latino rights group after WWII was the GI Forum led by Hector Garcia. They first broke into national prominence by their support for Felix Longoria, a WWII fatality whose family was denied waking rights in the local chapel in Three Rivers, Texas. This greatly expanded their reach as they organized Latino vets all over the country to fight for GI Bill and voting rights. They were successful in these fights and even got the first Latinos appointed to high office as a result of their political support of Kennedy and Johnson with the Viva Kennedy and Viva Johnson clubs.

      They should have a paragraph of their own in the 1950s chapter, but at least a meniton in the line in front of MAPA and MALDF.

      Comment by Kellie Marie Lavin on November 23, 2019

      Paragraph 68 and 69 are in a smaller font size than the paragraphs that follow.

      Comment by Nate Belcik on September 23, 2020

      In the recommended reading list there are no books about the Vietnam War.

      Comment by nancy robertson on November 16, 2020

      I think to point out that this was likely part of the celebration of the 50th anniversary of women’s suffrage.  Women’s Strike for Equality– Aug. 26 is not a random day,

      Comment by nancy robertson on November 16, 2020

      See comment above

      Part of a nationwide protest to mark the 50th anniversary of women’s suffrage.

      Women’s Strike for Equality.


      Aug 26th is not a random day



      Comment by Nancy Robertson on November 28, 2020

      caption to picture:

      I am not sure it makes sense to refer to

      represented different civil rights strategies

      black activism?  efforts for racial justice?  The wording implies Malcolm X was part of the CRM.


      I would Black Freedom Struggle, yes.

      CRM was a specific movement — so no

      Comment by Victoria Broadus on April 12, 2021

      With the introduction of Malcolm X already as “the late Malcolm X” it would be helpful to give birth and death dates immediately in parentheses after his name, or at least add something like “Prior to his assassination in 1965” in place of “prior to his death.”

      Comment by Nancy Marie Robertson on April 26, 2021

      If you are going to include a document by Goldwater (which I think you should), you need to mention the 1964 election in the text.

      I know there is a passing mention in the previous chapter–but students aren’t going to find it.


      You probably also need to describe Wallace’s victories in 1964 and 1968.


      What about a document from Young Americans for Freedom?

      Comment by Nancy Marie Robertson on May 28, 2021

      Is there a reason not to refer to this wing as “liberal”?

      Comment by Nancy Marie Robertson on May 28, 2021

      Is there a reason not to refer to this wing as “liberal” and taking a page from the NAACP?

      Comment by Jennifer Tomas on August 14, 2021


      I respectfully suggest that your characterization of the work of the PCSW, which was the brainchild of progressive Democrat Esther Peterson, not Eleanor Roosevelt–who was appointed its head because of her work on the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the UN CSW, as designed to “ameliorate the types of discrimination primarily experienced by middle class and elite white working women” is inaccurate and more reflective of the ideas and goals of  the minority feminist group at the time–known as “equal rights feminists” whose most well-known organization was the National Woman’s Party.  Most of those tapped to serve on the PCSW were progressive labor feminists and civic activists concerned with helping ordinary American working women and had long track records of support for the labor movement and Black civil rights. Prominent among them for example were historian, civic activist, and Howard University professor Caroline Ware,  Pauli Murray of the NAACP, and Dorothy Height of the National Council of Negro Women. The work of Landon Storrs and Dorothy Sue Cobble among others is of note on this front, as is the collection of letters between Ware and Murray by Ann Firor Scott.  Even Flora Davis, cited here, does not claim that the PCSW ignored the concerns of working-class women.  I’d be happy to work on a rewrite of this paragraph to remedy this mischaracterization if my efforts would be welcome.

      I’m considering adopting this resource in place of the traditional textbook I’ve been using but this paragraph gives me pause. Mostly I very much like what I’m seeing so far.

      Jennifer Tomas

      Associate Professor of History

      Piedmont Virginia Community College

  • 22. The New Era (11 comments)

    • Comment by Christopher Maples on October 10, 2018

      [In 1919, the UNIA announced plans to develop a shipping company called the Black Star Line as part of a plan that pushed for blacks to reject the political system and to “return to Africa” instead.”]

      I see that there is an unnecessary quotation after Africa at the end of this sentence, but please let me know if it is there on purpose.

      Comment by Cassidy Janso on March 6, 2019

      In the 6th paragraph of the primary source, on the 4th line, the word “the” is not spelled correctly. There is also an “s” in the middle of the sentence, where it is supposed to be attached to the end of the word “it.”

      Comment by Joseph Kirven on April 25, 2019

      Secretarty of the Navy Edwin Denby was never convicted and was never sent to jail. Please reference the Denby Family Papers in the Library of Congress Database.

      Comment by SI on August 5, 2019

      This chapter does not mention anything about Native Americans becoming citizens of The United States for the first time ever.

      If mentioned, please disregard.

      Comment by Melanie Gustafson on September 24, 2019

      Caption is wrong. It should be National Woman’s Party not Women’s. Plus it it is pretty poor caption. They implies ws was won by the NWP alone. What is the purpose of the tea party?

      Comment by Sunny Hicks on October 13, 2019

      last line: an America (not American) riven

      Comment by Bob Joe on February 10, 2020

      Actually, it was Roddy Rich who came out with the box who influenced the urban boom. Then the Indian remix was made, which made the stock market crs

      Comment by Colin Reynolds on March 1, 2020

      I think it would interesting to have a section on the Buck v. Bell (1927) case, as well as the eugenics movement more broadly.  It’s hard to know where to put it, but my best thought is here, right after the paragraph on immigration quotas.

      Eugenics always fascinates my students, especially because it was embraced by people on all sides of politics, who were in favor of all types of causes.  It’s hard to decide whether it was the darkest manifestation of social Darwinism or the darkest manifestation of progressivism.

      Comment by Hannah Riggio on June 16, 2020

      Remove the final quotation mark.

      Comment by Clear Bias on October 5, 2021

      Remove the last sentence, that is 100% opinion and not history.

      Comment by Dr. Darrel Shoebrocker on October 5, 2021

      Did anyone ask? No. No one cares about bias. Darrow did eloquently fight for academic freedom, and you can’t do anything about it. Too bad so sad!

  • 12. Manifest Destiny (10 comments)

    • Comment by Kate Bennecker on August 10, 2019

      Is this what’s now called Oregon State, or the Oregon Territory?

      Comment by barthoumule on August 28, 2019


      Comment by Kellie Marie Lavin on September 2, 2019

      Verb tense should be changed in sentence #2 of this paragraph. It should read:

      “This treaty ceded lands in Georgia for $5 million and, the signatories hoped, would limit future conflicts between the Cherokee and white settlers.

      Comment by Kellie Marie Lavin on September 2, 2019

      In paragraph 29, there is an extra word that should be removed. It says:

      “Not every instance was of removal was as treacherous…”

      The first “was” in that sentence should be removed.

      Comment by Kellie Marie Lavin on September 2, 2019

      In the sentence that begins “Not every instance…” in paragraph 29, the transition “while, on the other hand,” does not seem to fit well. This sentence might be better divided into two sentences, with some minor changes also made to the sentence that follows. Perhaps:

      “Not every instance of removal was as treacherous or demographically disastrous as the Cherokee example. Furthermore, tribes responded in a variety of ways. Some tribes violently resisted removal. Ultimately, over sixty…”

      Comment by Christopher Shelley on September 19, 2019

      The periodization with this is awkward. Manifest Destiny is best dealt with as a Western phenomenon. Indian Removal should be dealt with earlier under the Age of Jackson. Placing it here makes this chapter longer than it need be, and confuses the issues here.

      Comment by Russell on November 13, 2020

      Change “America” to “the U.S.” for political and cultural correctedness.

      Comment by Sabrina Garciia on May 10, 2021

      The purpose of manifest destiny was to move people out west. It was needed to further America.

      Comment by Sabrina Garciia on May 11, 2021

      Seizing the native Americans land was very wrong. President Jackson and the government forced them out.

      Comment by Rachel Jeske on May 12, 2021

      I thought that ‘familial responsibilities were a great addition to the romantic vision of life they discussed We associate selfishness and greed with the westward expansion, and there were some terrible things that occurred like the driving out of the native Americans. Yet, this gives us insight and empathy into those moving west for a greater life.

  • 13. The Sectional Crisis (7 comments)

    • Comment by Bill on September 7, 2018

      Last sentence doesn’t make specific reference to Haiti. Might be confusing for some…keep up the great work!

      Comment by Harry William Hanbury on January 8, 2020

      Please add John Brown’s first name and some short description of him to the caption beneath the painting of him.

      Comment by Jack Rinne on November 14, 2020

      [white men regardless of status would gain not only land and jobs but also the right to vote,]

      “Regardless of status” should have commas around it, as it is an appositive.

      Comment by JS on January 1, 2021

      This reference to antiquity — with no qualification — obfuscates qualitative differences between ancient slavery (based on frequently ephemeral war booty) and modern race-based chattel slavery. It is as if a discussion of the Nazi Holocaust began by noting that there has always been mass murder.

      Comment by JS on January 1, 2021

      It ought to be made explicit that the balancing act specifically concerned the number of states in the Senate.

      Comment by Michael Cleaver on October 3, 2021

      The clause, “pandering to appeals to white supremacy,” incorrectly conflates our modern idea of racial views with the past.

      Many pro-slavery voters and abolitionists agreed that whites were inherently superior to other races. Therefore “pandering to white supremacy” does not add a distinction. I think this sentence is unnecessary and misleading by suggesting that abolitionists and republicans believed the races were, or should be, equal.

      This sentence should be removed as it blurs the distinction between what the republicans advocated (anti-slavery) and modern views of racial equality. The sentence also does not add historical context or substance to the article.

      Comment by Henry Gibson on October 14, 2021

      “stole” on sentence 4 should be stolen

  • 29. The Triumph of the Right (7 comments)

    • Comment by Andrew Paul on December 3, 2018

      I know talking about “liberalism” is alway going to be imperfect, but the phrase “economic liberalism” here is especially apt to be misconstrued. Instructors like myself take the time to peel back common (and historical) misuses of the term liberalism, and usages like this have the potential to undo some of that work.

      Comment by Lois Leveen on May 4, 2020

      This chapter should be titled “THE TRIUMPH OF THE CONSERVATIVE” or “THE TRIUMPH OF RIGHT-WING POLITICS” or something similar. The current title implies the correctness of those who triumphed, by labeling them merely “RIGHT.” I realize this is not your intent, but when writing for general audiences, it is important to consider how particular words and phrase might be misinterpreted.

      Comment by Joshua Sperber on September 25, 2020

      Par. 20 line 9: “County” should be “country.”

      Comment by Eric Berry on April 22, 2021

      This paragraph ends with a close quote which is not matched by an open quote, or part of a quotation. I recommend deleting the close quote.

      Comment by sundus muhumed on June 4, 2021

      Speaking to Detroit autoworkers in October 1980, Republican presidential candidate Ronald Reagan described what he saw as the American Dream under Democratic president Jimmy 

      Comment by Cheryl McDonald on July 20, 2021

      This chapter should be called the Resurgence of Conservatives, Triumph is final and implies a judgement.

      Comment by Eric Cowen on August 11, 2021

      I do not see how this is a slim majority for Reagan, he wins overwhelmingly in the electoral college and wins the presidency by 10 percent. I think it is unfair to call this a slim majority and reeks of political posturing

  • 14. The Civil War (6 comments)

    • Comment by Lacy J Hawkins on December 14, 2018

      I don’t think this is a “photograph” like it says it is.

      Comment by your mom on January 25, 2019

      the south was right

      Comment by madi on February 3, 2019

      You just need to insert the opening parentheses before “Peace Democrat” at the end of the paragraph 🙂

      Comment by Ian Iverson on July 1, 2019

      The characterization of Douglas as pro-slavery is misleading and confusing. While Douglas’ personal position on the slavery question remains up for debate (see Graham Peck’s Making an Antislavery Nation and Adam I.P. Smith’s The Stormy Present for contrasting perspectives) the fact that mattered at Charleston in 1860 was that he had taken a moderately anti-slavery stand over Lecompton– thus alienating Southern Democrats. The Douglas Democrats failed to adopt an explicitly pro-slavery platform at Charleston and stuck to popular sovereignty (with all of its ambiguity). For clarity in this paragraph, I would simply label Douglas as “a champion of popular sovereignty” rather than “a pro-slavery moderate.”

      Comment by Shannon Pait on December 1, 2019

      Why isn’t there information about Native Americans fighting as soldiers in the Civil War?

      Comment by Richie Marsh on November 18, 2020

      I love the addition of the “Cornerstone” speech and Mississippi’s letter of secession, but with all of the misunderstandings regarding the cause of the Civil War in modern America, the addition of the rest of the Southern statements on secession would help teachers that use this textbook more accurately portray the primary cause of the Civil War. Adding the other states’ memos regarding slavery and secession would strengthen the message that academic historians have no problem understanding and that high school and college textbooks should be underscoring to ensure that people that read this book have no doubt that the perceived threat to slavery was the cause of each Confederate state’s intent to leave the United States in 1860-’61.

      This section is written clearly and well, but adding the other states’ declarations, even as footnotes, would benefit readers (and, thus, the rest of us) immensely from possibly never having to entertain an argument over the cause of slavery when each state made it obvious.

  • 23. The Great Depression (6 comments)

    • Comment by Erik on March 14, 2019

      The 1937 strike at GM in Flint, MI was not “the first instance of a ‘sit-down’ strike.”  It’s debated which was the first sit-down strike in US labor history, but many cite a brewery workers strike in Cincinnati in 1884, or Akron, Ohio rubber workers strike in 1936.  The 1937 sit-down at Flint was probably the most historically significant sit-down strike, but not the first use of the tactic.

      Comment by Mike Timonin on March 15, 2020

      Honestly, this needs to be two chapters – one on the Depression and a second one on the New Deal. Combining them doesn’t allow sufficient emphasis on either.

      Comment by Rebecca Brenner Graham on May 22, 2020

      During the New Deal, the Immigration and Naturalization Service — under the jurisdiction of Frances Perkins’s Department of Labor — halted some of the Hoover administration’s most divisive practices…”

      Comment by Marybeth Powell Hamilton on August 12, 2020

      It would be more organized and easier to understand had the information been kept in chronological order as it is confusing that it swings back and forth to different years and it would be helpful to state years in parameters such as “Between the years 1929 thru 1940’s” The Great Depression ….etc at the intro of the chapters. Have a section on Key points of the chapter would be ideal as well.

      Comment by Ann on August 13, 2021

      The section on the New Deal is displaying as one lonnnngggggg paragraph in the static version. Some one needs to check the code and insert some<p>s. It is an an overwhelming amount of information with lots of acronyms that are confusing in and of themselves.

      23. The Great Depression

      Comment by americanyawp_4nkkka on September 29, 2021

      Fixed. Thanks!

  • General Comments (6 comments)

    • Comment by Jack Buchanan on October 31, 2018

      Some of the paragraphs the text size is smaller then others for not apparent reason.

      I don’t know if there is way to fix that but, if possible please try.

      Comment by Megan Cherry on November 9, 2018

      It would be fantastic if there were instructor resources (quiz questions, etc.) available as well.

      Comment by Paul Villa on January 23, 2019

      It would be useful to include in the primary sources for Chapter 6, the US Constitution, since so much of that chapter is dedicated to that document. It would also be nice to include a selection from The Federalist Papers so students can understand the framing of the debate over the Constitution. Given the polarized nature of the electorate today, perhaps Federalist 10 would serve the purpose.

      Comment by Andrea Gomez on February 15, 2019

      It would be great if you could highlight the text and underline it, as if it were a real textbook. Having a toolbar that allows you to take notes like you do in a physical book would be utterly helpful.

      Comment by Joy on January 21, 2020

      Where are the page numbers? I am using the online text for class, and we are asked to site directly from the text. However, unless I am missing something, the online text does not have a convenient way to find the page numbers.

      Comment by Monica Stenzel on May 18, 2020

      It would be wonderful to have text-to-speech function for the text and textual sources. Many of my students commute, are ESL, or have other accessibility issues. Also, they would learn pronunciations, as well.

  • 00. Feedback Instructions (1 comment)

    • Comment by clarissa mackenzie moland- gibson on July 13, 2020

      Capitalize “Black” the same way you guys capitalize ‘African- American”. “Black” is and can be used to identify an African- American, but being Black is now generally understood as the proper term for Black Americans who can’t trace their roots or, who were born in another country that isn’t Africa. In English, we capitalize proper nouns like Latinx. Asian, Indigenous American, and in reference to a culture or a person should be capitalized.

Comments on the Blog

  • Hello world! (1 comment)

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