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  • 01. The New World (63 comments)

    • Comment by Joshua L Freeman on September 5, 2018

      The source is mislabeled as “brooked beak of heaven” and should be fixed.

      Comment by Jesse Adelman on September 7, 2018

      This suggestion will likely just seem excessively nit-picky. In regards to the “[n]o America city, in fact, would match Cahokia’s peak population levels…” statement. Although it is somewhat implicitly stated in previous statement”north of modern-day Mexico,” the use of America in the aforementioned sentence only to refer to present day USA and Canada could cause a little confusion. As the writers of this resource I’ve had the pleasure of discovering recently probably already know, the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had a size on par with that of Constantinople. Such a fact is likely included in many cite-able sources. The one where I had found it would be The Cambridge Economic History of Latin America: Volume 1, The Colonial Era and the Short Nineteenth Century by Coatsworth, Bulmer-Thomas, and Cortes-Conde.

      Thank you for the great work you’ve done with this website. I was never very interested in North American history until I had found this resource!

      Comment by Kristin Mann on October 2, 2018

      Poverty Point would be an excellent addition to this paragraph, or as part of a paragraph on trade in early America. http://www.povertypoint.us/

      Comment by Saleha Tahir on October 12, 2018

      Sentence two states “Europeans rediscovered or adopted Greek, Roman and Muslim knowledge.” That makes no sense. You can not rediscover anything. Europeans blatantly STOLE knowledge, & ideas & accredited it as their own. This is very misleading & should be changed considering that you have a very large audience viewing this textbook.

      Comment by Scarlet on January 17, 2019

      Role of women

      Comment by Scarlet on January 17, 2019

      The Enslavement of Native Americans.

      Comment by Scarlet on January 17, 2019

      End of Civilization

      Comment by Scarlet on January 17, 2019

      Lenape Women

      Comment by Scarlet on January 23, 2019

      Three Sisters

      Comment by Scarlet on January 23, 2019

      Matrilineal Ancestry

      Comment by Sean Dinces on January 28, 2019

      The first two sentences are poorly constructed and repetitive (e.g., word “unleashed” is used repetitively in the first two sentences). Possible rewrite:

      “Europeans’ ‘discovery’ of America unleashed waves of destructive exploitation underwritten by murder, greed, and slavery.”

      Comment by Sean Dinces on January 28, 2019

      The first two sentences are poorly constructed and repetitive (e.g., word “unleashed” is used repetitively in the first two sentences). Possible rewrite:
      “Europeans’ ‘discovery’ of America unleashed waves of destructive exploitation underwritten by murder, greed, and slavery.”

      Comment by Sugma on January 30, 2019

      Sugma Donger

      Comment by Allison A Astarita on February 6, 2019


      **decline in health

      **produced more foods

      **pusured other skills

      **people were able to do other things rather then just make food

      Comment by Benjamin Cohen on March 2, 2019

      Sistema de Castas, not Casas

      Comment by Juan M. Galvan on March 13, 2019

      This sixteenth century drawing depicts the Spanish and their Tlaxcalan allies fighting against the Purépecha, not the Aztec. The text on this image includes “guzmã,” which stands for “Nuño de Guzmán,” the Spanish conquistador who crushed the Purépecha, who were the people of “michuacá,” which is today’s Michoacán, in western Mexico.

      Comment by Michael McCormick on April 9, 2019

      The site at Buttermilk Creek, Texas, dated at roughly 15,500 years ago, predates both Monte Verde and the Florida site mentioned and might be cited as an example of a much earlier date for human activity.

      Comment by Daniel on April 18, 2019

      One of the main reasons for the shift from the ecomienda system to the repartimiento was the papal encyclical delivered by Pope Paul III in 1537 and adopted by the Spanish monarchy, the Sublimus Dei. Which stated that the Native Americans “are by no means to be deprived of their liberty or the possession of their property…nor should they be in any way enslaved…” This

      Comment by Ryan on May 1, 2019

      This paragraph is rather disingenuous.  Not one source in entire paragraph to support these claims.  So many qualifiers in every statement without one specific instance of any tribe/people/group, anywhere in America who practiced sexual liberation and care-free divorces.  Five thousand plus years of Native American history where mass human sacrifice and territorial fighting and raids were commonplace surely also saw many machismo tribes and polygamy was probably common among warring tribes where women were taken as brides by the victors.

      Comment by Jeffrey Yoham on May 11, 2019

      Europeans CAN rediscover that knowledge if it was known previously but was lost. That’s the whole point of the word “rediscover”. Europeans can also learn and adapt from others (Greeks, Romans, Muslims). Human beings adopt superior ideas and knowledge, that is a universal trait for all cultures and societies. It is unfair to attribute bad intent upon one massive group for no other reason then irrational dislike for them.

      Comment by Jeffrey Yoham on May 11, 2019

      The book should make a distinction between Columbus and the conquistadors and colonists that came after him. Columbus never killed any natives and had constantly warned the men under his command to not enact violence on them. Bartolomé de Las Casas book was written in 1542 (published in 1552), decades after Columbus died in 1506. de Las Casas admired Columbus, who his father sailed with to the New World on Columbus’s second voyage (1493). It is unfair to place Columbus in a disparaging and inaccurate light and connect him to the cruelty others had wrought on the natives. A helpful source on Christopher Columbus comes from Carol Delaney, Professor of Anthropology who wrote a book on Columbus called: Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem (2011).

      Comment by Myron Paine on June 24, 2019

      Native Americans were Catholics, who spoke Norse.  Therir ancestors were NOT in America until the Mississippian Culture, wich is dated from AD 800.

      Comment by Gaunet Nina on July 23, 2019


      I only noticed the S in people(s), (l.8) that should maybe be removed

      I have just begun reading this, and it is very well done, thank you.


      Comment by Alexander Maldonado on August 20, 2019

      [bridged more than ten thousand years of geographic separation]

      This implies that there was communication and altercations before ten thousand years when in reality Europeans have not made contact with Native Americans in history until this point. So “more than ten thousand years” should in reality be a lot more

      Comment by Edward Hashima on August 22, 2019

      Interesting that the title of the chapter is The New World when in the very first sentences the authors note that is a misconception and misnomer. Why not follow the lead of historians such as Daniel Richter and refer to the “ancient” Americas or use a similar concept?

      Comment by Crystal Shepard on August 28, 2019

      Native Americans lived and developed governing systems within their own beliefs and knowledge of the Americas before the Europeans “discovered” their new world.  Before their arrival and greedy mindset brought disease, separation and segregation and slavery to the Americas.  Similar tactics were in place however were more humane toward both humans and animals.

      Comment by Crystal Shepard on August 28, 2019

      Native American stories of how the earth was created by their indigenous belief systems.  The broad scope of the stories aren’t much different than religious mindset.  Both have similar outcomes with different story line.  Archaeologist and anthropologist focus on a scientific study of artifacts, bones, genetic signatures tell their own story to give a similar timeline with scientific evidence.

      Comment by Crystal Shepard on August 28, 2019

      Through evidence collected after the global ice age between 12 and 20,000 years ago was when human hunter gatherers traveled in small groups as means of survival in the new land of Asia and America.

      Comment by Crystal Shepard on August 28, 2019

      The was a division of native group that understood the vast benefits of their surroundings.  Those in the NW had salmon filled rivers.  Plains and prairie, deserts, and forest the cultures were as different as their environment.

      Comment by Crystal Shepard on August 28, 2019

      Mesoamericans relied on maize/corn for survival and this began the agriculture.  North America continues to hold the importance of those that began the development and sustainability of North America.

      Comment by Veronica Riddle on September 3, 2019

      If they were so good at surviving, then how come they didn’t live into their 100’s?

      Comment by Jessica Marck on September 9, 2019

      That’s a keen observation; I guess they author’s intention is to appeal to the perspective of the European settlers, but being a valued historical textbook, they probably should have opted for a more objective title. I agree…I wonder why they chose that approach.

      Comment by 0102 on October 1, 2019

       The first Dutch and Swedish settlers who encountered the Lenapes in the seventeenth century recognized Lenape prosperity and quickly sought their friendship. Their lives came to depend on it.

      Comment by Paul Wallig on November 20, 2019

      Spain settled into their new empire.  

      Agreement of antecedent and pronoun would be

      “Spain settled into its new empire.”  OR

      The Spanish settled into their new empire.”

      Comment by Paul Wallig on November 20, 2019

       Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca joined the Narváez expedition to Florida a decade later but was shipwrecked and forced to embark on a remarkable multiyear odyssey across the Gulf of Mexico and Texas into Mexico. 

      A better wording would be “along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico”


      Comment by Duran on December 6, 2019

      Goats were native to Eurasia. How is this possible pre-contact?

      Comment by Alexander Perdomo on December 21, 2019

      Agriculture was able to set the foundation of society. This allowed people to diversify themselves and put their abilities to their best use possible. This not only set the foundation for this time period but, for more to come. Today we see the youth trying to follow their parents’ footsteps and, this began behavior was set years ago, according to the text since people pursued their own activities that intrigued them. Allowing farmers to produce food also let society use their minds differently and independently.

      Comment by Alexander Perdomo on December 21, 2019

      It is unreal how the Puebloans’ knew how to celebrate life and start a religious ceremony that would be carried down from generation to generation. with the resources given to them at the time, they knew how to convert those resources into an environment that is sustainable. It felt like for anyone during this time period they would be living in caves or huts not in complexes. The Puebloan people knew how to come together and they understood that together, they could accomplish goals for having a better community.

      Comment by Alexander Perdomo on December 21, 2019

      Native Americans had a right to their land and in keeping it. The Europeans had no place in trying to colonize it for their own. However, during this time of expansion they were eager to control more land throughout the world. Why was world domination so important during these times when there could have been peace?

      Comment by Michael Smith on December 22, 2019

      25 percent is too low for an estimate of the death rate for the Black Death. Modern estimates generally range from 30 to 50 percent.

      Comment by Steven Gimber on January 3, 2020

      considering that the entire Delaware River Valley as the homeland of the Lenape, it might be better/ more accurate to say that the Susquehannock were located to the west and south rather than just south.  Also you might mention the the Minqua (Susquehannocks) were an Iroquoian people.

      Thank you for considering my suggestion

      Comment by Steven Frost on January 7, 2020

      The “three sisters” are mentioned, but there is no specific mention of what the “three sisters” are

      Comment by Tom Gordon on March 6, 2020

      “…inaugurated centuries of violence…”   The chapter has already stated that the native inhabitants had “warred with their neighbors.”  In this sense, violence had already been inaugurated. Perhaps “continued” is a better word choice than “inaugurated.”

      The releasing of “the greatest biological terror the world had ever seen”–while I agree that this was both “biological” and a “terror,” it seems that putting those two terms in such close proximity to each other drums up a sense of premeditation on the part of Europeans.

      Comment by Ashley Bauer on April 27, 2020

      Hi, I am a student ((the main reason I am reading your work)) I just thought you should know that placing citations in the middle of your work is pretty distracting. I think it would be best if you used superscript. Other then that your writing style is wonderful, it’s as if you are talking straight to me.



      Ashley Bauer

      Comment by Udit Parikh on June 9, 2020

      The “but” in Line 5 of paragraph 70 (“modern association between food and geography are but products of the Columbian…) should be changed to “by”.

      It should read “geography are by products of the Columbian Exchange”

      Comment by Peggy A Camp on June 18, 2020

      What the Aztecs did that most may not know is bring ‘chocolate’ , then many types of medicines from herbs and especially the passion flower which treated seizures, menopause ,burns, and even hysteria.

      Their skills in sports were also invented – popcorn.

      They were the leading in agriculture and taught draining and other ways to crop and drain swamps.

      Pyramids and templates and their hieroglyphic writing.

      Sports was big with them.

      Comment by Me on August 6, 2020

      chill out Paul not that deep

      Comment by asd on August 19, 2020


      Comment by MW on August 21, 2020

      The phrase “using hand tools rather than European-style plows” is rather poorly worded, as it suggests that the natives in the Eastern Woodlands were using European style plows. This is implied by the “but” at the beginning of the sentence as “but” is used as a contrast to something mentioned beforehand.

      Comment by Erick on August 22, 2020

      Both of you made such astute observations about this book. However, the author intended

      Comment by Erick on August 22, 2020

      Your comment is inappropriate and should be removed from this site.

      Comment by Maria Hamblin on August 24, 2020


      They are referring to the core crops they depended on; corn, beans and squash per paragraph 11.

      Comment by Alyssa Jones on August 25, 2020

      I completely agree! The name somewhat threw me off but I understand what they were trying to do, This was how the world became a “New World”. i think..

      Comment by Eric Rodrigo Meringer on August 26, 2020

      The convention among Latin American historians these days is that the Aztecs did not see Cortes as Quetzalcoatl. The only evidence we have of the conquest from the time of the conquest is Cortes’ letters to the King and in those he does not make mention of this. This theory was put to rest with Camilla Townsend’s article “Burying the White Gods”. It is a Eurocentric interpretation.

      Comment by Beatriz on August 27, 2020

      Completely uncalled for.

      Comment by lmao on August 28, 2020

      i diagnose you with gay

      Comment by lmao on August 28, 2020

      no u

      Comment by Riley Kellogg on August 28, 2020

      Chapter 1: illustration of Cahokia Mounds
      The link to the Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site is not workinghttp://www.cahokiamounds.org/

      It is not only on this page that it is not working; trying to locate the site via google yields the same, non-working link.

      Comment by Riley Kellogg on August 28, 2020

      The link seems to be working now.

      Comment by Carolyn Barral on September 5, 2020

      So here it is the first reading…I have to say I am intrigued with the reading…..not as bad as I thought it would be…..the title…I would call it the Beginning…..the new world……

      Comment by VG on September 6, 2020

      Yup, this should be re-captioned as the “crooked beak of heaven” mask.

      Comment by Sincere on September 15, 2020

      What did the author intend?

      Comment by Grant M Jeffrey on September 22, 2020

      The Spanish phrase “Sistema de Castas” is used two paragraphs above, but, in this paragraph (64), it says “Sistema de Casas.” There is a letter “T” in one (castas/casas) and not the other. I assume this is a mistake.

  • 20. The Progressive Era (53 comments)

    • Comment by joy roman on September 17, 2018

      feel like something is missing

      Comment by joy roman on September 17, 2018

      feels like something is missing

      Comment by Morgan Musgrove on September 17, 2018

      There is an extra A at the beginning of this paragraph

      Comment by Joe on September 22, 2018

      Fixed. Thanks!

      Comment by Connor Heideman on October 2, 2018

      The last sentence seems to have a flaw, all that is needed is to add the word “do”.

      “…should ask themselves what they could __ to enact the kingdom…”

      Comment by Erik on February 10, 2019

      The last sentence of this paragraph refers to “Carnegie’s U.S. Steel,” implying that Andrew Carnegie was running U.S. Steel when Taft was President.  I don’t believe that was the case.

      Comment by jorje on February 13, 2019

      their is nothing about frank norris in here plz add him

      Comment by Grayson on February 26, 2019

      You spelled “please” incorrectly. In addition, you spelled your own name, “George”, incorrectly. You have also used the incorrect “there”. You neglected to capitalize your first letter, add a comma between “here” and “please”, and you forgot a period to conclude. It would please me if you corrected these errors.

      Comment by Melanie Gustafson on September 18, 2019

      It is the National American Woman Suffrage Association not the National American Suffrage Association.

      Comment by Melanie Gustafson on September 18, 2019

      You have it wrong here again: It is the National American Woman Suffrage Association


      Comment by Melanie Gustafson on September 18, 2019

      It should be U.S. Steel not Carnegie’s U.S. Steel.

      Comment by Melanie Gustafson on September 24, 2019

      Rose Schneiderman. Not Ruth.

      Comment by Nella on November 20, 2019

      It seems that you misspel led disenfranchisement unless you were intentionally saying disfranchisement.

      Comment by thomb your mom on January 23, 2020

      bollocks luv.

      Comment by thomb your mom on January 23, 2020

      u should delete urself.


      thanks luv x

      Comment by Jack P on February 10, 2020

      [National American Suffrage Association]

      It’s the National American Woman Suffrage Association.

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Wrote about the changes in society.


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Gilded age-  the rise of unprecedented fortunes and unprecedented poverty.

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Reformers sought to clean up polotics


      Black people still fought for their civil rights

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Women wanted to vote

      Workers wanted higher wages

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Reform was in motion

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Making them work in bad factories


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [ Gilded Age injustice]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [ ((Jacob A. Riis, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York (New York: Scribner, 1890).))]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Was trying to show how these laborers were being exploited

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      How did the meet inspection act and pure food and drug act of 1906 come about?

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [Confronted by both the benefits and the ravages of industrialization, many Americans asked themselves, ]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [ Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 The social gospel emerged within Protestant Christianity at the end of the nineteenth century. ]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      Christian Socialism- Protestant people wanted to engage people

      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [Jesus’s phrase, “the Kingdom of God,” claiming that it encompassed every aspect of life and made every part of society a purview of the proper Christian]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [“The social gospel is the old message of salvation]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [The social gospel seeks to bring men under repentance for their collective sins and to create a more sensitive and more modern conscience. ]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [In the 1890s women formed national women’s club federations]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [The fearsome Carrie A. Nation, an imposing woman who believed she worked God’s will, won headlines for destroying saloons.]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), but the organization’s leaders described her as “unwomanly and unchristian.]


      Comment by David Gracia on April 2, 2020

      [The 1912 Anti-Saloon League Yearbook, for instance, presented charts indicating comparable increases in alcohol consumption alongside rising divorce rates.]


      Comment by R L on May 10, 2020

      The 4th sentence has no predicate verb; should perhaps be “However, the writings of Rauschenbusch and other social gospel proponents [were/had] a profound influence on twentieth-century American life.”

      Comment by Alex on June 25, 2020

      What does having a wealthy background have anything to do with pushing for antitrust legislation and regulations. Even more unrelated is the fact that he couldn’t rely on courts to break up trusts. This sentence doesn’t tie back to itself, instead stating unconnected facts.

      Comment by Alex on June 26, 2020

      I would have appreciated an explanation of what it means to “cast your bucket down”. It means to make the most of whatever situation you are put in. Basically, he didn’t think that leaving the south and going to the north was any more sensible in trying to achieve economic independence than simply staying in the south.

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      The gilded Age was a time in the United States where the economy and industrialization boomed
      As the economy grew so did tensions between politics and the people

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      The progressive Era:
      Women fought for their right to vote
      Black Americans fought for Equality
      Labors demanded a higher wage and work spaces

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      What Are Mobilizing For Reforms?
      First Paragraph: Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in manhattan Caught fire because manager held the keys to prevent unauthorized breaks. building caught on FIRE Side ladder of the building broke down. Women went to the roof and Jumped off for freedom or died on in the building.

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      The photograph demonstrates policeman placing the corpses in the coffin. This incident called for a lot of attention

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      A year after the Triangle Shirtwaist. factory in Manhattan caught on fire workers had gone on strike demanding:
      Higher wages, and better Safety Conditions
      One of the girls who worked in the factory said that every week one of the girls would be dead
      Business became more sacred than the lives of humans
      Owners of the Triangle factory were charged with manslaughter and two hours later where freed
      Inequality grew and living conditions worsened it became difficult to make a change

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      The Triangle shirtwaist fire moved many Americans to Reform
      Reform: Make a change
      Everyone: journalist , religious  leaders, politicians ETC

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 29, 2020

      Reformers used book and magazines to spread the corruption of business men
      coined term for corrupt businessman are Muckrakers Theodore Roosevelt

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 30, 2020

      Jacobs Riis was a journalist who documented the Urban Poverty with videos and Photographs
      Jacob Riis published How the other half Lives
      Sinclair was another journalist who wrote the Jungle
      The jungle was supposed to be a way to support socialist Movement by exposing the brutal labor in the meatpacking industry
      Slaughterhouses where growing so quick for consumers the work place became unsanitary & Unsafe work conditions

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 30, 2020

      Edward Bellamy’s 1888 Looking Backward was a national sensation
      This novel was about a man who falls asleep in 18887 and wakes up in 2000
      The man is confused because the world has altered: Disease and poverty grew, Industries grew as well to build a Utopia of social harmony and economic prosperity
      Bellamy’s vision of a reformed society persuaded readers (Youth Readers) to reform on the STREETS

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 30, 2020

      Charles Sheldon a congregational minister in Topeka Kansas Published IN HIS STEPS: WHAT WOULD JESUS DO?
      His book was a best seller but moved multiple people because it addressed that if we worked as how Jesus would everything from economic, social , and Political issues would be reduced ti a MINIMAL
      This turned into a movement called the SOCIAL GOSPEL

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on July 3, 2020

      Women Clubs flourished in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
      Women suffrage groups where segregated at the time as well

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on July 3, 2020

      Addams and Kelly worked together to push towards a better way of living for the communities
      Such as 8 hour shifts for women and children, They also pushed legislator to pass other bills concerning the people

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on July 7, 2020

      The growth of industrialization brought environmental problems Reformers began to create environmental protections

      Comment by E. Masarik on September 16, 2020

      Rose, not Ruth Schneiderman


      National American American Suffrage Association???

      National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)

  • 16. Capital and Labor (27 comments)

    • Comment by maria yamilet medina on January 14, 2019


      Comment by Erik on January 16, 2019

      I believe Bryan served in the US House, representing Nebraska, not “the Nebraska House of Representatives.”  Similarly, he was unsuccessful in his campaign for the US Senate, not “the Nebraska Senate.”

      Comment by Lia on January 17, 2019

      My name pickle jeff

      Comment by Tom B on January 21, 2019

      typo: poise should read poised

      Comment by Steven Kite on January 24, 2019

      In the reference material section, the Industrial Workers of the World are mistakenly listed as the “International” Workers of the World.

      Comment by Amanda Huginkiss on January 30, 2019

      Hello. I need amanda huginkiss. Can someone give me amanda hugikiss.

      Comment by Hector on January 30, 2019

      Hola Jeff. Me llamo Hector.

      Comment by Douchebag on January 30, 2019

      Hello Anthony!!!!!!!!!!!!!

      Comment by Tyler on February 13, 2019

      I give hug and kiss.

      Comment by Anika on April 2, 2019

      Hello I am Anika


      Comment by Brenda Mulchrone on April 13, 2019

      “In the summer of 1886, the campaign for an eight-hour day, long a rallying cry that united American laborers, culminated in a national strike on May 1, 1886.” What kind of sentence is this?  It’s like a run-on sentence made of sentence fragments.  Should “long” be “rang”?

      Comment by Brenda Mulchrone on April 13, 2019

      Nevermind. I get it.

      Comment by Brendan Joel Stanford on May 13, 2019

      should there be a comma?

      Comment by Damian Fisher on June 29, 2019

      The artist’s name is misspelled – should be Snyder not Synder

      Comment by Tomas Salas on October 19, 2019

      Paragraph 1 seems to have an editing error, as the second sentence does not make sense.

      It should possibly read as follows:

      “That year, mired in the stagnant economy that followed the bursting of the railroads’ financial bubble in 1873, rail lines slashed workers wages even as they reaped enormous government subsidies and paid shareholders lucrative stock dividends.”

      Honestly the sentence should possibly be broken down into multiple sentences, as it seems like a run-on sentence.

      Comment by CHARLES FORDJOUR on January 20, 2020

      You can call me CHARLES for short


      Comment by CHARLES FORDJOUR on January 20, 2020

      I love it!

      Comment by Cody Barrozo on January 29, 2020

      Didn’t laborers at this time work roughly 16 hours a day, 6 days a week? This would calculate to over 90 hours a week, not 60.

      Comment by CHARLES FORDJOUR on January 30, 2020

      From it’s beginnings in the early to mid nineteenth century during the Industrial Revolution to the modern era of today, the labor movement has fought hard forming labor parties and labor laws to give the American worker the rights they deserve. The scene in this chapter shows the defiant labor movement(armless) being chased out by armed soldiers to quell out their demonstration.


      Comment by CHARLES FORDJOUR on January 30, 2020

      [A month of chaos erupted. Strikers set fire to the city, destroying dozens of buildings, over a hundred engines, and over a thousand cars. In Reading, strikers destroyed rail property and an angry crowd bombarded militiamen with rocks and bottles. The militia fired into the crowd, killing ten. A general strike erupted in St. Louis, and strikers seized rail depots and declared for the eight-hour day and the abolition of child labor. ]

      I think , the use of armed  men to deal with the railway strikers is not the best and killing of innocent people; the best way however is to use dialogue between the workers union leaders’ and the government representative to make tranquility and sanity prevail

      Comment by CHARLES FORDJOUR on January 31, 2020

      The Federal government actively promoted industrial and agriculture development. It enacted high tariffs that protected American industry from foreign competition, granted land to railroad company to encourage construction, and used the army to remove foreigners from Western land by farmers and mining company’s to pave way greater achievements.


      Comment by jake on April 8, 2020



      Comment by Neil Oatsvall on June 2, 2020

      Isn’t this five years? 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, and 1902

      Comment by Daniel on June 24, 2020

      Just a grammatical error. On sentence #4 it should be “among” investors, manufacturers, and retailers, not “between.”

      Comment by TracyAnn Larson on July 10, 2020

      Missing word “it” at the end of the second to last sentence: Republican dominance maintained a high protective tariff, an import tax designed to shield American businesses from foreign competition; southern planters had vehemently opposed this policy before the war but now could do nothing to prevent. 

      Comment by Andrew Paul on August 23, 2020

      This appears to be the first reference to the Gilded Age, and the term shows up a lot. How about defining it?

      Comment by Caleb Jackson on September 22, 2020

      lmao no simp september

  • 24. World War II (21 comments)

    • Comment by Christopher Flores on September 6, 2018

      “Comprehending Japanese motivations for attacking China and the grueling stalemate of the ensuring war are crucial for understanding Japan’s seemingly unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii”
      Is the word “ensuring” supposed to be “ensuing”?

      Comment by Joe on September 22, 2018

      Yes it was. It’s fixed now. Thanks!

      Comment by Alyssa DiDonato on November 3, 2018



      Comment by Erik Hearne on March 21, 2019

      Not a criticism but more a request. I didn’t see much or any mention of the lend-lease program championed by Roosevelt preceding the U.S. entry into the war. This chapter would benefit from a section on it as this was vital to Roosevelt’s attempt to bypass the rest of the country’s isolationist perspectives.

      Comment by Walker Robins on April 10, 2019

      Reintroduces and re-explains material introduced in paragraph 63.

      Comment by Sunny Hicks on November 22, 2019

      The most plausible response  for the U.S. military was to bomb either the camps or the railroads leading to them
      (remove the first instance of “was”)

      Comment by Herbert Hoover on December 11, 2019

      Japanese troops surrender on June 3, 1943.


      Comment by Nayellie Frias on December 13, 2019

      From June 5th, 1942 till May 30th, 1943, a Japanese garrison occupied the Aleutian Islands of Attu and Kiska, which are a part of Alaska. The “Battle of Attu” took place there, and that was the first and only battle to be fought on U.S. soil during WWII.

      I feel like that’s a pretty important thing that is not mentioned here at all.

      Comment by Paul Wallig on December 16, 2019

      [conference at Dumbarton Oaks, outside Washington, D.C.]

      Dumbarton Oaks is in Georgetown a part of Washington D.C.

      Comment by David Peterson on January 20, 2020

      It would be helpful to include more information on appeasement policies. I feel this issue is extremely important and a lesson we need to focus on so that we can learn for the future. It is referenced but briefly.

      Comment by David Peterson on January 20, 2020

      I feel this page would benefit from information on American Neutrality prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The Lend Lease program and the “great arsenal of democracy” while the US specifically passed bills to attempt to stay out. Our involvement in the war prior to Dec. 7th, 1941 seems to be brushed over as well as the American desire to stay out of another European war.

      Comment by Abby Hatcher on February 26, 2020

      You’re welcome.

      Comment by Paul Mankewitz on March 2, 2020

      The United States did send aid to China in the form of groups of airmen such as the Flying Tigers.

      Comment by Paul Mankewitz on March 2, 2020

      Doesn’t mentioned that the Soviets attacked Poland from the East in addition to the German attack from the West

      Comment by Paul Mankewitz on March 2, 2020

      The casualties from the Bombing of Pearl Harbor were closer to 2,600

      Comment by Paul Mankewitz on March 2, 2020

      The “Army Air Force” wasn’t called that, it was called the Army Air Corps, and there were still air raids that were flown without fighter escort, but used a different tactic instead of flying straight to the target cities.

      Comment by Paul Mankewitz on March 2, 2020

      Also doesn’t mention the first bombing strike against the Japanese capitol a few months after Pearl Harbor, which is very important, The Doolittle Raid.

      Comment by Tiegan Paulson on March 16, 2020

      True, but this was not until after the Lend-Lease Act when the United States was already on the road to war.  The flying tigers, for instance, were not formed until the summer of 1941, only a few months before the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and after the invasion of French Indochina, a point of contention between the United States and Japan.

      Comment by Miguel Solis on March 23, 2020

      You are welcome as well

      Comment by Chloe Morris on April 2, 2020

      Alan Turing is the name of the man who cracked Germany’s enigma code. Alan Turing created the Turing machine, which cracked the German’s code, which changed every 24 hours. By cracking their code, the war ended much quicker and so many lives were saved. Alan Turing’s Turing machine was actually the foundation for modern computers. He is a genius and a hero and deserves to be recognized. He is often left out of history, due to the fact that he was gay and found out.  He was deemed a criminal for being a gay schoolteacher.  He took his own life due to this. The queen of England pardoned him but it wasn’t until the 2000s I think. Remember the name Alan Turing because he stopped the war and saved countless lives.

      Comment by Isabela T Pinto on July 13, 2020

      “At home, Japan was driven…” not riven. Grammatical error.

  • 18. Life in Industrial America (19 comments)

    • Comment by Bligh on January 28, 2019

      I suggest a word change in this sentence:

      Immigrant communities published newspapers in dozens of languages and purchased spaces to maintain their arts, languages, and traditions alive.

      Either remove the word “alive’ or change the word “maintain” to “keep.” Such a change will improve the readability of the passage. Thank you.


      Comment by Sean Dinces on February 4, 2019

      This paragraph should mention and define patronage so students reading this will wonder why in the world machine bosses engaged in these types of “mutual aid” activities.

      Comment by Stacey Young on February 10, 2019

      There is a typo towards the end of the paragraph:

      “A Russian Jewish family persecuted in European pogroms…” should be programs.

      Comment by bob on March 14, 2019

      plz help me this reading takes too long

      Comment by SJR on August 1, 2019

      “Pogroms” is the correct word here. A pogrom is an organized riot/massacre. I’ve only ever heard the term used in this specific situation, where Europeans planned the wholesale destruction of a Jewish community.

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      The supposedly “new South” grew in industrialization but remained heavily segregated giving the worst jobs to African Americans

      Lynching was fine in the South if members believed that an African American made a crime they would publicly kill them

      Presented the KKK as vigilantes that assist the community -> romanticized the KKK

      The South grew in constructing Railroads

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      John D. Rockefeller was the richest man in America but also hated & mistrusted because many believed that he got his money illegally by immoral business Clergyman Washington Gladden protested to accept the 100,000 Rockefeller donated to the American Board of  Commissioner for Foreign Missions because he didn’t trust his dirty money

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      The board president Samuel Capen did not defend Rockefeller but he did say it was a gift and they can’t asses the origin of every donation but the debate shook Capen
      The tainted Money debate that Gladden had with the board of commissioners and the rising income inequality rose concerning questioning about the morals of the new industrial United States
      Religions were confused with who they would support either the or the disempowered?
      Steel Magnate Andres Carnegie popularized the idea of a “Gospel of Wealth” which was the rich to donate to charity to make up for the inequality of of income between the rich & Poor.
      Eventually American Churches adapted themselves to the new industrial order Even Gladden who debated against Rockefeller’s money started to accept it
      Meanwhile many churches questioned the COMPATIBILITY of large fortunes with Christian Values

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      The economic and social changes of the late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth centuries challenged traditional norms
      the increase in urbanization,immigration, and advancements in Science and technology, patterns of consumption and the new availability of goods and awareness of economic inequality brought a drive to make change traditional gender and sexual norms
      Many women carried campaigns that lasted long int the past fought for equal rights
      Many women became activist and targeted municipal reforms, launched campaigns and above all HIGHLIGHTED the suffrage movement

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Urbanization and immigration fueled anxiety for old social mores and created tension for these old policies and so called “norms”
      The unpredictability of urban spaces created opportunities for in particular female sexuality and for both male and female sexual experimentation. Along with this a spectrum of orientations and gender identities
      Young women who went against social norms such as premarital sex where considered feeble minded: they lack the normal ability to make conscious decisions. Some women would even be considered clinically insane rather than them making a decision willingly
      Woman fashion changed as well by loosing physical constraints like corsets and ad hemlines rose (Length of dresses)

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      While many women fought for equality others worked to uplift each other. Women’s work against alcohol increased the temperance into one of the prominent moral reforms of the period
      Middle class typically protestant women dislike alcohol because of their feminine virtues,Christina sentiment and protective role in the family and home.
      Jane Adams and settlement house workers sought to include a middle class education on immigrant and working class women through the establishment of settlement homes
      Other reformers shared a “scientific motherhood”-> the science of hygiene was deployed as a method of to both uplift and moralize particularly of working class and immigrant women

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s shorty story “The Yellow Wallpaper” challenged the social role of women and she criticized( the Victorian psychological remedies: the ways doctors practice therapy)
      While women are working towards equality man are worrying about their masculinity and their role in society neurologist George Bared even coined a medical term “neurasthenia” for a new emasculated condition that was marked by depression,indigestion,hypochondria and extreme nervousness

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Churches worried that women would influence the church and change the image of Jesus as a strong carpenter to a mushy and sweetly woman like man this was said by Walter Rauschenbusch
      Muscular Christianity sought out to strengthen young man. churches even created gymnasiums to strengthen their boys. Young Men Christian Associations who coined the term bodybuilding and other invented the sports of basketball and volleyball. These organization were built to strengthen young man.
      I think it’s to increase there’s ego or “Masculinity”

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Muscular Christianity was about even more than building strong bodies and minds
      Age men were encouraged to embrace a particular vision of masculinity connected with rising tides of nationalism,militarism and imperialism
      During the Spanish American War in 1898 Teddy Roosevelt and his Rough riders idealized the image of a tall,strong, vile, and fit American
      Roosevelt and others believed this image of masculinity would preserve the American Race’s superiority against foreign foes and the effeminizing effects of civilization

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Luna Park one of the original amusement parks on Brooklyn’s famous Coney Island Attracted Amusement Hungry Americans

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Between 1880 ans 1920 Vaudevillla featured comedians,musicians,actors,juggler and other talents that could captivate an audience
      Vaudeville was considered a family friendly entertainment even though the made racist jokes on African American and immigrants
      The renowned Palace theatre in New York City signaled true stardom for many performers Charlie Chaplin and Magician Harry Houdini made names for themselves on the Vaudeville circuit

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Edison pioneered two technologies the Phonograph and motion pictures. It revolutionized the world. it became a device for music and other factors
      Edison thought it was going to be used for dictation,recording audio letter,preserving speeches and dying words of great men, producing talking clocks, or teaching elocution
      By the turn of the century American were purchasing phonographs for home use
      Phonograph parlors were places where people could pay a nickle to heard a piece or music

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Edison decided in 1888 to develop an instrument which does for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear
      The inventions are called a kinetograph and a viewer a kinetoscope. Many entertainers purchased this device all over the world. It drew many from arcades to movie theaters.
      Most of the content that was displayed was boxing,baseball, and even Indian dances. The content only last for a couple of minuets

      Comment by Adrian Fermin on June 28, 2020

      Designers of the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago built the White City in a neoclassical
      This type of style for the buildings, walkways, and landscapes brought more than 27 million people to Chicago helping to establish the ideology of American exceptionalism
      After enduring four bloody years of warfare and a strained, decade long effect to reconstruct the defeated South, the United States abandoned itself to industrial development. Businesses expanded in scale and scope.
      during this time the US started to change socially. Industrialization took over. The South Jim Crow Laws decreased the US started to change and create more opportunities

  • 25. The Cold War (18 comments)

    • Comment by Hayden Cole on December 4, 2018

      “Nuclear” is misspelled. In addition, the sentence might be better structured by writing as follows: “J. Robert Oppenheimer, director of the Los Alamos nuclear laboratory…

      Comment by Maegan Albert on December 7, 2018

      Soured should be soared – first sentence

      Comment by Maegan Albert on December 7, 2018

      Please ignore this. I’m studying for a final and forgot that “soured” is actually a word.

      Comment by Vincent Nguyen on March 11, 2019

      Paul Robeson was an American Actor and singer, not signer.

      Comment by Corinne Gressang on March 18, 2019

      Same as above comment. Typo

      Comment by Stone Criddle on March 26, 2019

      Wernher von Braun should not be referred to as a “former top German rocket scientist”. Instead, he should be referred to as a “Nazi rocket scientist”. This reference is more conducive to maintenance of the truth.

      Comment by R. N. Nelson on August 3, 2019

      The end of this paragraph mentions “containment” for the first time. What that means is never defined anywhere in the chapter.

      Comment by big three on November 19, 2019

      the cold war grew out of failure to achieve a durable settlement.

      Comment by big three on November 19, 2019

      The political landscape was altered drastically by Franklin Roosevelt’s sudden death in April 1945, just days before the inaugural meeting of the UN. Although Roosevelt was skeptical of Stalin, he always held out hope that the Soviets could be brought into the “Free World.” Truman, like Churchill, had no such illusions. He committed the United States to a hard-line, anti-Soviet approach. ((Harbutt, Yalta 1945).))

      Comment by big three on November 19, 2019

      potsdam conference- discuss fate of soviet occuped poland.


      *manhattan project- learn atomic bomb sucessfully tested. truman told stalin.


      Comment by big three on November 19, 2019

      atlantic charter- churchill and roosevelt issue a joint declaration for post war peace. Established the creation of the united nations. (Soviet union, US, britain, frnace, china)

      This plan also set in motion the p-lanning for a recognized globl economy. The societs rejected these ideas.

      Comment by Cindy Hu on March 1, 2020

      [To avoid the postwar chaos of World War I, the Marshall Plan was designed to rebuild Western Europe, open markets, and win European support for capitalist democracies.]

      The Marshall Plan was designed to avoid the postwar chaos of World War II, not World War I.

      Comment by Spencer Hansen on March 30, 2020

      When including words from foreign languages; I believe the actual translation of the word should be included. In this case “détente” is translated by google drive as “relaxation”.

      Comment by Lauryn Kenney on April 21, 2020

      Should be World War II here, not World War I.

      Comment by Sean Milliken on July 1, 2020

      There is absolutely no such thing as “Fusion Explosives.” I suggest either dedicating a full paragraph to the distinctions between fission and fusion, or, the removal of this subject altogether rather than providing false information.

      Comment by Professor Andrew Klosterman on July 10, 2020

      I think more clarification is needed for your total deaths number of 1.5 million.  This may be too low.  I was always taught that this number was likely closer to 3 million and have seen estimates as high as 5 million.  I know how difficult this can be (and unfair in most cases).  However, if you could add more clarification (based on your source listed – Elizabeth Stanley) on how the 1.5 million number was arrived this would be most appreciated.  Thank you.  Professor Andrew J. Klosterman, History 1620, Rhodes State College, Lima, OH.

      Comment by Benjamin Cohen on July 15, 2020

      Insert space between NAACP and “and the ACLU.”

      Insert “pact” after “Hitler’s and Stalin’s 1939 nonaggression”

      Comment by Joshua Sperber on September 20, 2020

      This chapter would be much improved if it addressed the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis. The latter represents a high point of the Cold War and was a central cause of detente.

  • 02. Colliding Cultures (17 comments)

    • Comment by Sharleen Levine on January 6, 2019

      Font size does not match the rest of the chapter. Besides this paragraph, the font size is not consistent in other parts of Sections 1-3 of Chapter 2. Please fix for readability, especially for visually impaired readers.

      Comment by Unit 2 on January 14, 2019

      Puritans were stereotyped as  killjoys, Puritans did not succeed. Puritans would not stay away from alcohol or sex based on their religion or life style.Puritans believe that the European church was to close to Catholicism.

      Comment by Daniel on April 18, 2019

      I feel that you should include the term iconoclasm here as this was the name given to the abolition or ornate churches, and that the definition should be expanded upon a but to show the full breath of reforms that the Puritans were attempting to achieve.

      Comment by Daniel on May 20, 2019

      There needs to be a section dedicated to the explorations of de Soto.

      Comment by Brantly Bemis on September 2, 2019

      Not sure where you are getting your information from, but Oñate cut off the foot of every male above the age of 25. He enslaved everyone between the ages of 12-25.

      Comment by Shawn Louis Marchelsano00222000 on September 12, 2019

      Diseases wiped out entire civilizations

      nutrient rich foods help European population

      Spaniard slaughter acoma of 1500 inhabitants

      Black legend – drew on religous diff, and political rivalries

      Middle ground The great lakes had lots of success

      Labor shortages crippled the Dutch

      the puritians commited to reforming the church of england






      Comment by Thomas Phillips on September 26, 2019

      Did they really only import eleven slaves?

      Comment by Alexander Perdomo on December 21, 2019

      Why didn’t the Spanish try to keep their discoveries to themselves to gain advantage over their competition?

      Comment by Alexander Perdomo on December 21, 2019

      if the youngs kept dying why didn’t the french try to come up with solutions and try separating themselves from giving one another diseases?

      The French were able to come to terms with this new society, why couldn’t the competition do the same instead of murdering communities?


      Comment by Alexander Perdomo on December 21, 2019

      if the dutch bought into democracy, could they have gone further in their financial organizations?

      Comment by Jamie Starling on December 29, 2019

      The Spanish did try to control access and information as best they could, but that was a tough thing to keep secret! One key is that Spain’s Hapsburg kings also ruled much of what is now the Netherlands, Belgium, and adjacent areas of Germany. When the Protestant Reformation spread to the Spanish Netherlands, Dutch printers such as Theodore de Bry translated, illustrated, and printed Spanish accounts of the conquest in order to inform their anti-Catholic propaganda.

      Maybe a quick note that Spain had a vast European empire, and fought for decades to defend its interests against the rise of Protestant powers informed these processes could go here. (The Spanish rivalry is noted).

      Comment by nancy robertson on January 20, 2020

      paragraph 76–with citation for Winthrop, gives the date of 1830 for the Modell–I think you mean 1630.


      HOWEVER the new book by Mark Peterson _The City-State of Boston_ totally complicates the matter.  It does not appear that Winthrop delivered the talk on the Arabella–and there is no contemporaneous references to it.  He MAY have delivered in in England.  But it does not gain traction until the 1830s.

      Comment by SG Shepp on May 30, 2020

      Regarding the lost colony of Roanoke, the word found carved in the tree was “Croatoan,” not “Croatan.”

      Comment by Jake Samuel on August 13, 2020

      Because of the existence of the British East India company, the text should mention that the Dutch East India company is separate to avoid confusion

      Comment by Jake Samuel on August 14, 2020

      [Fears of racial mixing led the Dutch to import enslaved women, enabling the formation of African Dutch families.]

      ah yes the dutch fear racial mixing, so they bring in enslaved women, which enable racial mixing

      it all makes sense now

      Comment by Jacob Ellison on August 21, 2020

      [ Jean Calvin]

      John Calvin*

      Comment by Lloyd on August 25, 2020

      I know Wikipedia is a reader contributed site so I’m not sure if my info is correct, either.  I’m curious about your use of the word, “Hapsburgs.”  Wikipedia calls it Hadsburg and says the Netherlands was in an 80 year war from 1568-1648.  I’m wondering about your “officially broke away from the Hapsburgs…” statement as to its accuracy? Thank you for you input to this inquiry.  Lloyd F Barb

  • 15. Reconstruction (17 comments)

    • Comment by Ana Aguilar on September 6, 2018

      Why was the south in ruins ?


      Comment by Ana Aguilar on September 6, 2018

      Im thinking what could have happen for a person to think omg its so unbelievable what happen and I have no idea what happen in their own place that they live

      Comment by Ana Aguilar on September 6, 2018

      “barely good roads”

      Comment by Ana Aguilar on September 6, 2018


      Comment by Madison C on February 3, 2019

      missing ending parenthesis at the end of paragraph

      Comment by Albert Fall on February 28, 2019

      You see, the thing about wars….

      Comment by Jazmine Neal on May 20, 2019

      [These so-called Lincoln governments sprang up in pockets where Union support existed like Louisiana, Tennessee, and Arkansas. Unsurprisingly, these were also the places that were exempted from the liberating effects of the Emancipation Proclamation.]

      Emancipation Proclamation was more of a blow to the rebelling states, not to actually abolish slavery. The less rebellious states were rewarded by getting to keep their slaves.

      Comment by Abby on October 17, 2019

      is that a typo for level

      Comment by Michael Pomatto on December 4, 2019

      [black behavior]

      Should read “the behavior of Blacks…”  It’s is an offense to refer to African-Americans as “black” and not “Black.”

      Comment by Antrita Manduva on December 13, 2019

      the civil war?

      Comment by Lucia Forseth on June 20, 2020

      Freed people sought out to find family members that had been sold when they were enslaved. So they can gain control over their own family.

      Comment by Emily Elmore on August 7, 2020

      In this paragraph, when you read it on the website and not on this section, it says “When lack Americans” when it should say black Americans.

      Comment by George Jarrett on August 17, 2020

      Black Codes should be capitalized in last sentence.

      Comment by George Jarrett on August 17, 2020

      Why frame this whole chapter from the perspective of white Southerners? Wouldn’t it be better to start from the perspective of a freed slave?

      Comment by John Kaiser on August 29, 2020

      While it says, “black Americans” here, it still shows up on the web version I am reading as “lack Americans.”

      Comment by chris on September 9, 2020

      I’m not sure how the layout of the course is. So there is no book to read, just click on the topics of each module and read that?  I’m also not sure where the assignments for the week are placed at.


      Very Respectfully,


      Comment by Cristina Salinas on September 22, 2020

      In the sentence that begins when black Americans, in the reading, it says when lack Americans…

  • 21. World War I & Its Aftermath (16 comments)

    • Comment by Kirk Johnson on February 19, 2019

      This paragraph fails to note that Gavrilo Princip was a member of Black Hand. It also suggests that Austria-Hungary was aggressively seeking to annex Serbia, but ignores the expansionist “Greater Serbia” ideology of Black Hand, as well as the role of Austria-Hungary in supporting the Obrenovic dynasty over the then-ruling Karadjordic Dynasty.

      Comment by Hua Rong on March 8, 2019

      This here says that Lodge’s opponents managed to block entry into the League of Nations. How can this be so if Lodge himself was an opponent?

      Comment by Amy Bergseth on May 6, 2019

      Should it be: “Wilson’s opponents successfully blocked America’s entry into the League of Nations” not Lodge’s opponents but Wilson’s?


      Comment by C. Ozarow on May 31, 2019

      “Victor Huerta” should be “Victoriano Huerta”

      Comment by Betty on June 5, 2019

      It should be the “Austro-Hungarian Empire,” not the “Austrian-Hungarian Empire.”

      Comment by Jaedan Ford on July 9, 2019

      should be: “Lodge’s supporters” not “Lodge’s opponents”

      Comment by Marcus Smith on October 1, 2019

      It says that Pres Wilson was the First to travel overseas while in office. This may be misleading, as Teddy Roosevelt traveled to Panama in 1909 during canal construction.

      While he didn’t cross an ocean, “overseas” is commonly understood to mean outside the country, especially if it involves water travel.

      consider replacing “overseas” with “to Europe” or “outside the western hemisphere” or “across an ocean”

      Comment by Shawn Foster on October 4, 2019

      “be” should be inserted between “a” and “fatal” in the following sentence: “Although much of the equipment still needed to make the transatlantic passage, the physical presence of the army proved to a fatal blow to German war plans.”

      Comment by Christopher Shelley on November 12, 2019

      There needs to be a section in this or the next chapter on the Red Scare. It astounds me that there is no mention at all of Abrams v. United States (1919), and the great dissent of Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

      Comment by Paul Wallig on December 13, 2019

      [The army and navy chose to appoint them instead, which left the status of professional medical women hovering somewhere between the enlisted and officer ranks.]

      Appoint them to what? The sentence is unclear.

      Comment by Paul Wallig on December 13, 2019

       Lodge’s opponents successfully blocked America’s entry into the League of Nations,


      I think you want to say “Lodge’s opposition”

      Comment by Alex O. Boulton on March 3, 2020

      I love American Yawp but this chapter is a little disappointing.  The Introduction and Conclusion suggest a leap directly from WWI to 1929 and WWII.  I think that it should reference the US emerging as a world power as a creditor nation and the immediate post-war prosperity of the US..  The chapter should mention resistance to US entry and the draft by Eugene Debs and others.  What new countries emerged in Eastern Europe?  What were final casualty figures in Europe (not just France)?

      Thank you for all your work.

      Comment by Jacob Koziej on March 6, 2020

      [and and]

      Redundant and


      Comment by nancy robertson on March 9, 2020


      Surgeon General of the Army be capitalized.


      And the sentence needs to make clear these numbers are for American soldiers


      Reports from the Surgeon General of the Army revealed that while  227,000 U.S. soldiers were hospitalized from wounds received in battle, almost half a million suffered from influenza.

      Comment by Tomas Q on March 26, 2020


      This last name is spelled incorrectly. It’s correct way is Zimmermann.

      Comment by Tomas on March 26, 2020

      Yes, José Victoriano Huerta Márquez

  • 28. The Unraveling (14 comments)

    • Comment by Anon on September 9, 2018

      Repeated sentence

      Comment by Moekenzip roeski on November 2, 2018

      Looksie here bud i hate ur and ur mom

      Comment by Moekenzip roeski on November 2, 2018

      pp succsickle

      Comment by Moekenzip roeski on November 2, 2018

      Owo whats THIS *notices your bulge*

      Comment by Moekenzip roeski on November 2, 2018

      Lik if u cri everytim

      Comment by Albert on November 6, 2018

      “Former one-term Georgia governor Jimmy Carter…”. This is true, but it implies that Carter lost his run for a second term. He was term-limited so he couldn’t run. I would strike the reference to one term.

      Comment by E on April 17, 2019

      Robert F. Kennedy was killed, not Robert F. Kennedy Jr., his son.

      Comment by Joselyn Thomas on April 28, 2019

      The paragraph ends with the word detente” with a closed quote sign. Just a typographical error.

      Comment by Michele Rotunda on May 6, 2019

      Would be useful to mention the Equal Pay Act specifically.

      Comment by Chris Rutkowsky on July 24, 2019

      The last 2 sentences read “Americans cringed at Nick Ut’s wrenching photograph of a naked Vietnamese child fleeing an American napalm attack. More and more American voices came out against the war.”

      Surely the photograph in question should be included, at the very least, in the Primary Sources that accompany this chapter. 

      Comment by Anthony Saia on January 13, 2020

      [biker gang]

      outlaw motorcycle club

      Comment by David Evans on March 31, 2020

      To my knowledge Ted Landmark was a civil rights lawyer, and 30 years old when the picture was captured. The protester could possibly have been in his teens.

      Comment by Holly Golightly on April 30, 2020

      Robert F. Kennedy was killed in June of 1968, not Robert F. Kennedy, his son.

      Comment by Holly Golightly on April 30, 2020

      Not Robert F. Kennedy, Jr* typo.

  • 08. The Market Revolution (14 comments)

    • Comment by Maggie G. on May 10, 2019

      [dozens of slates]

      minor typo – should be “slaves”

      Comment by Ryan Facey on July 12, 2019

      Text Says Tauten, Maine (which I don’t think has ever existed). The referenced source clearly says Tauton, Ma.

      Comment by Thomas Phillips on October 20, 2019

      Correct to “and a new, more-commercial”

      Comment by Malinda Marcus on October 25, 2019

      The 5th sentence should read, “through institutions such as the House of Refuge in New York City…”

      Comment by jeffry epstien on November 9, 2019

      jeffery Epstein didnt kill himself

      Comment by Issac Zheng on November 12, 2019

      Which period? Perhaps provide a date or timespan, as that would help give context

      Comment by Jeffrey Epstein on November 19, 2019

      Jeffrey Epstein didn’t kill himself.

      Comment by Jeffrey Epstein on November 19, 2019

      jEFFREY Epstein didnt kill himself


      Comment by JEFFREY EPSTEIN on May 2, 2020

      I agree

      Comment by JEFFREY EPSTEIN on May 2, 2020


      Comment by Kevin Back on July 3, 2020

      ‘They earned cash for what they had previously consumed; they purchased the goods they had previously made or went without.”

      Should be.

      They earned cash for what they had previously consumed; they purchased the goods they had previously made or gone without.

      Comment by Karen J Downey on August 1, 2020

      Delete “and.”

      Comment by Karen J Downey on August 1, 2020

      Change But to However,

      Comment by Karen J Downey on August 1, 2020

      Delete and

  • 09. Democracy in America (13 comments)

    • Comment by Porter on October 24, 2018

      There is no conclusion for this chapter. All of the other chapters so far, have one.

      Comment by Ryan Facey on November 5, 2018

      This chapter absolutely needs a detailed recounting of Jackson’s Indian Removal policy, culminating in the trail of tears. It’s a huge whole in what is presented in the chapter.

      Comment by Megan Cherry on November 9, 2018

      The Trail of Tears is mentioned later in chapter 12, but I agree with Ryan that it would be far better to include that information here.  Perhaps it could be briefly recapped in chapter 12 but presented in depth here?

      Comment by David Salmanson on November 27, 2018

      I’d love to add a sentence either here or in paragraph 10 that connects to the image in terms of the rise of political parties and, well, partying and campaigning.

      Comment by David Salmanson on November 27, 2018

      Is this the place to mention the spoils system/rotation in office?  Postal clerks were generally the only source of hard currency, especially in the frontier so the democratization of gvt. work regardless of qualifications sets up the bank war.

      Comment by Stephen Campbell on July 7, 2019

      Can I make a suggestion for an additional entry to the Recommended Reading section? Stephen Campbell has recently published a monograph on the Bank War with the University Press of Kansas. It is one of the few monographs to come out on this subject in the last forty years and it is also one of the most detailed. I do believe that reading this monograph closely will improve the section on the Bank War for this chapter. Thank you for your consideration.

      Comment by Steven Wagner on July 29, 2019

      The date range in the title of this primary source should read “1819-1820,” not 1920 as appears here and on the page with the document itself.

      Comment by Dawn Karvis on September 30, 2019

      [ He defended the impulsive general, arguing that he had had been forced to act.]

      Double “had”

      Comment by Chase Goldberg Friedman on January 7, 2020

      Her first husband never committed suicide, an autopsy later revealed he died of pnemonia.

      Comment by April Haynes on January 18, 2020

      The members of the Boston and Lynn Female Antislavery Societies were hardly considered “respectable.” They were mobbed, ridiculed, and race-baited. New England clergymen disputed that “both men and women” should speak out against slavery, as did many abolitionists. In emphasizing the middle-class status of some abolitionist women, this paragraph misrepresents the movement as part mainstream “middle-class culture,” which was not at all the case in the 1830s. 

      AY chapter alludes to some of these issues and cites much of the relevant literature. This paragraph contradicts that information.

      Comment by April Haynes on January 18, 2020

      AY chapter 10, that is

      Comment by Joseph A Villano on February 18, 2020

      I realize that the topic is Democracy in America, but a major section on the Jackson Administration is missing. I am referring to the section dealing with the Native Americans. I believe that the topic should be included in Chapter 9. Jackson’s interactions with the Native Americans does show his character of the times, and his conflict with John Marshall and the Supreme Court, his concepts for the executive branch and his dealing with judicial l branch.

      The rest of the chapter is very well done and useful in class. The documents, especially the veto message is important.

      Comment by Jonathan Green on February 20, 2020

      The year is incorrect on the source as well as the document. It should read 1819-1820.

  • 06. A New Nation (13 comments)

    • Comment by Serena Zabin on September 7, 2018

      The bibliography seems to have been pasted twice.

      Comment by Bryana Wallace on January 29, 2019

      Americans goal was coming true: “that the United States would become a diverse but cohesive prosperous nation”

      Comment by Bryana Wallace on January 29, 2019

      new nation was having difficulties and tried to resolve them by putting emphasis on “unity and cooperation”

      Even the Constitution was controversial and tried to strengthen the government to help resist internal conflicts

      Comment by Bryana Wallace on January 29, 2019

      farmers were in a great debt in western Massachusetts and was increased by weak local and national economies

      farmers were afraid of getting shut down by their creditors so they fought for their property

      Comment by Bryana Wallace on January 29, 2019

      soldiers helped fight as well

      Comment by Bryana Wallace on January 29, 2019

      The farmers and soldiers were named the “Shaysites”.
      They were led by a veteran named Daniel Shays
      They resorted to tactics used by the patriots before the Revolution

      Comment by Bryana Wallace on January 29, 2019

      governor, James Bowdoin believed that the Shaysites ere rebels who wanted to rule the government through mob violence.

      Comment by Denise Garay on February 27, 2019

      Didn’t we learn that Abraham Lincoln made thanksgiving a national holiday??

      Comment by Daniel Brown on May 14, 2019

      I believe you need to expound more on the New Jersey plan to the students. After all, prior to the Great Compromise the delegates debated for two weeks over a bicameral (Virginia Plan) and a unicameral (New Jersey Plan).  At least give the credit to the person that presented it to the Convention, William Paterson.

      Comment by Daniel Brown on May 14, 2019

      This would be a great place to discuss more of the Bill of Rights. All in all you have barely provided a sentence to what Rights the Bill protects. Especially in today’s political climate and the fact that a majority of High School students do not understand the Bill of Rights, namely the ninth and tenth amendments.

      Comment by Jenna Tolls on November 4, 2019

      ur mom

      Comment by Paul wallig on November 24, 2019

      what was the illuminati scare?

      Comment by Dr. Monica L. Butler on June 9, 2020

      The final statement, “this compromise also counted a slave as three fifths of a person for representation and tax purposes,” does not accurately represent the Constitution. This “compromise” counted three-fifths of a state’s enslaved population, not three-fifths of an individual.

  • 10. Religion and Reform (12 comments)

    • Comment by steven on November 7, 2018






      Comment by Emmaline R Avis on November 8, 2018

      Mormon should be changed Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. This was and still is the real name of the religion.

      Comment by Catherine Cirotti on April 8, 2019

      Spelling correction: runaway

      Comment by ty murray on April 8, 2019

      honestly taught me nothing, horrible website, never to be used again. #disapointing

      Comment by Tyler Soutas on June 2, 2019

      This is a very shallow summary of the life of Joseph Smith and the impact he had on religion in America.

      A few clarifications—the rites he instituted in the temples were not “secret” as it says. They were held very sacred to members of the church, and were not to be shared outside the temple because of its sacredness.

      When this mentions polygamy, it mentions nothing about why it was instituted among members of this church —the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (not the “Mormon Church”). Polygamy was very distasteful to most members of the church. They were only willing to participate in it because they believed it was a commandment that god restored once again—a commandment which he had given to many other biblical prophets. Joseph Smith never claimed ownership of the idea of polygamy, but that he received divine revelation and commandment from God to institute it among the people for the purpose of accelerating the growth of a righteous people. This is why they did it, not because they were experimenting sexually.

      The way this paragraph is worded is mildly offensive

      Comment by Tyler Soutas on June 2, 2019

      Also, Joseph Smith did not borrow the idea of sending out missionaries from the Methodists. He was a prophet who drew upon revelation from God, not from existing religious organizations. He also drew inspiration from the New Testament, The Book of Mormon, and from revelations given to him (since he was a prophet) which are now compiled and known as the Doctrine and Covenants.

      Comment by Stop on October 8, 2019


      Comment by nancy robertson on February 19, 2020

      It is Mary Lyon

      NOT Mary Lyons.

      Comment by Nick on June 10, 2020

      Please show more respect towards The Church Of Jesus Christ of latter day saints.  There are many things people say about the church that are not ture.  I hope you don’t want to be like those people.

      Comment by Nick on June 10, 2020

      Yes the churches name never started as the name mormon.


      Comment by Caitlin Lawrence on July 18, 2020

      Please add at the end of this paragraph that polygamy is NOT practiced by Mormons anymore. It is widely misunderstood that past polygamy practices by Joseph Smith and his followers are still popular today, when they are not. It is actually forbidden in Mormonism. It is specifically stated in the Mormon document “Family: A Proclamation to the World” that marriage shall only be between one man and one woman.

      Comment by Caitlin Lawrence on July 20, 2020

      Thank you for this, Tyler. I strongly agree. I think this paragraph was offensive, and it made it seem that polygamy is still being practiced by Mormons today. Many people nowadays have the misconception that it is, when it is STRICTLY FORBIDDEN against. You are right about Joseph Smith. He was confused and lost before he went into the forest and received revelation from God. The Godhead gave him the knowledge that he needed, which he used to found Mormonism.

  • 11. The Cotton Revolution (12 comments)

    • Comment by Theresa Schortgen on February 19, 2019

      a a = remove one of them


      In fact, the South experienced a a greater rate of urbanization between 1820 and 1860 than the seemingly more industrial, urban-based North. 


      independant = incorrectly spelled

      Comment by MICHAEL SNYDER on April 5, 2019

      The link to University of Virginia doesn’t work, or at least didn’t work for me.

      Comment by Robert Scibelli on April 10, 2019

      Found a typo, I believe there should only be one “a”

      Comment by hi on May 29, 2019

      Slaves had become more valuable and expensive.

      Comment by SJR on August 1, 2019

      It seems as though this section indicates that the rise of American cotton is directly responsible for the advent of the modern fashion system, which is not the case. “Fashion” – where styles change for change’s sake – has been present since the 1400s. People have been wearing decoration on their apparel that goes beyond utility since apparel was developed.

      The use of the word “honest” seems disingenuous as well – all clothing has a function (to cover the body; to differentiate gender, age, status, etc; to protect from the elements…). What does “honest” refer to?

      Comment by Adele Oltman, PhD on August 13, 2019

      Morgan — and others, including John Thornton — show that those first “20 Negars and then some” were not exactly unfree. Or if they were, they were as “unfree” as poor white indentured servants from England were.  Virginia colonists baptized those first 20 men from Africa (who were traded for food). According to English law, a person who was baptized could not be enslaved. This would change, of course.  See “The Terrible Transformation,” part of the PBS series, Africans in the Americas.

      The story of Anthony Johnson is instructive. He arrived in the VA colony somewhere around 1619. He was baptized and he somehow managed to survive his term of servitude (unlike most in the first generations of the colony — the colony was a death trap). Johnson got his freedom dues and at some point he purchased “head rights” so that by 1655 he owned a modest plantation on which he grew tobacco. That  was the year that one of his servants, a black man from Africa named Cesar, sued Johnson for his freedom. Cesar lost. Significant is that the local magistrate not only heard the case between two black men, but less significant is that he ruled in Johnson’s favor.

      When I teach Morgan and I pull out this primary source it doesn’t take long for my students to figure out why the magistrate ruled in Johnson’s favor: he was a landowner.

      Colonists were still working out how racial inferiority and slavery was going to operate in the colony (and also neighboring colony of Maryland). You begin to see this gradually; but after Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 planters begin to move toward racialized slavery faster and systematically for a variety reasons, not least of which was that they wanted to continue to exploit workers to produce cash crop and at the same time mitigate the possibilities for interracial uprisings against the ruling elites.


      Comment by Ed Whitley on February 13, 2020

      [The world was slowly but surely coming closer together, and the South was right in the middle.]

      The students in my class at Lehigh University felt that this sentence did not fully communicate how the brutality of slavery underwrote the dawn of globalization.

      Comment by Bill on May 8, 2020


      Replace “violent” with bracketed phrase.

      “Of course, tobacco is, and was, an addictive substance, but because of its (violent) [inconsistent, if not diminished,] pattern of growth,”

      Comment by Bill on May 8, 2020

      “yields” instead of “pattern of growth”

      “Of course, tobacco is, and was, an addictive substance, but because of its inconsistent, if not diminished, yields,…”

      Comment by Bill on May 8, 2020

      “reduced” for “diminished”

      I know…angels on heads of an editorial pen:-)

      Comment by seth on July 9, 2020

      There is no end to this quote. Where does it end?

      Comment by TONYA RICHARD on August 10, 2020

      1785 peel



  • 05. The American Revolution (12 comments)

    • Comment by Cha Boi on September 12, 2018


      Comment by y on October 3, 2018


      Comment by Garrett Bowers on October 10, 2018

      Good Morning,

      The inclusion of the phrase “salutary neglect” in this paragraph or in paragraph #9 of the same chapter referencing British colonial policy would be helpful. The phrase can help students name the colonial policy more succinctly and provides a utilitarian short form for them to use in writing/referring to the time period.

      Thank you all–the Yawp is everything good about academics!


      Comment by Pat on December 15, 2018

      Just a style thing: “throughout the colonies” appears twice in quick succession and three times in this paragraph. 11 times in the chapter total.

      Comment by Sean Dinces on February 3, 2019

      This paragraph is confusing. The previous paragraph says, correctly, that the Tea Act exempted the EIC from having import duties applied to its Tea. So the the phrase “colonists would be paying the duty” needs clarification.

      Comment by Sean Dinces on February 3, 2019

      In other words, needs clarification that EIC did not have to pay import duties but purchasers of tea still had to pay standard duties on their purchases.

      Comment by Patrick Hightower on September 13, 2019

      [in the colonies]

      This seems redundant as the sentence begins with “Colonial”

      Comment by Steve Rugila on September 17, 2019

      “Colonial political culture in the colonies”

      This is redundant, it should be “Political culture in the colonies” or “Colonial political culture”

      Comment by CHA BOI 2 on October 17, 2019



      Comment by Paul Wallig on November 23, 2019

      This and the first sentence of Para 48 that the duty had to be paid when the ship was unloaded are confusing.  Para 46 says the tea was without duties; para 48 said duites had to be paid.

      Comment by Benjamin Remillard on June 8, 2020

      There doesn’t seem to be any mention of the indigenous peoples who sided with the Americans during the conflict. This perpetuates the misinformed notion that Native Americans only aligned with the British, which effectively wipes them out of American history, as well as those peoples’ claims to helping shape American history. By including that Native Americans also sided with the Americans (which included members of the Oneida, Narragansett, Passamaquoddy, and Wappinger communities and tribes, among others) it presents students with a more complicated version of the past. The fact that the new nation did not honor its wartime relationships with those tribes, and the fact that some of those communities remained along the east coast and endured to this day adds further complexity to our understanding of the past and its legacy on the present. See Colin Calloway, The American Revolution in Indian Country, and Eric Grundset (ed), Forgotten Patriots: African American and American Indian Patriots in the Revolutionary War for more on this

      Comment by Alex on September 14, 2020

      “with almost fifteen million pounds of it *in* stored in warehouses” typo in this sentence. First “in” does not belong

  • 04. Colonial Society (12 comments)

    • Comment by Thomas Kidd on September 4, 2018

      The sermon was delivered in Enfield, Mass/Conn., not Northampton.

      Comment by Micah Rueber on September 6, 2018

      The line “15 to 20 percent of Pennsylvania’s colonial population was enslaved by 1750” is not supported by the reference, which shows that approximately 2% of PA residents were enslaved.

      Comment by rabbit on October 3, 2018

      shfkhsdkfhskdfjhskdjfhksdhfk skdfhkdsfhdfhsdf

      Comment by hebbi on November 28, 2018


      Comment by Cody Boushey on January 28, 2019

      I believe the two women are named “hypocrisy” and “deceit”

      Comment by Sean Dinces on February 2, 2019

      My students have been pretty confused by this paragraph b/c it makes little distinction between trade regulations pre-1764 and post-1764. Seems like there should be at least some mention that the Sugar Act was in large part about better forcing existing duties through Admiralty courts, etc.

      Comment by Sean Dinces on February 2, 2019

      Unclear which of the particular regulations listed were passed in 1705 and which came earlier.

      Comment by Karen Auman on May 9, 2019

      Georgia was founded by a philanthropic group, known as the Georgia Trustees. Oglethorpe was just one member and it is incorrect to label him the founder. The Georgia Trustees banned slavery.

      Comment by Eve Hepner on September 2, 2019

      I noticed a small error in the American Yawp version of Gibson Clough’s War Journal.
      Here is a short quote from the current Yawp version of Gibson Clough’s War Journal:
      “Here begins the New Year 1700”
      The actual version on the Essex Institute Historical Collections in the Internet Archive cited below the online version on this cite reads:
      “Here begins the New Year 1760”

      Comment by Albert on October 13, 2019

      The last sentence repeats the House of Burgese’s Slave codes and I find the last sentence redundant.

      Comment by Christopher Shelley on October 22, 2019

      This is really quite vague and dated. First, Fred Anderson’s excellent Crucible of War has become the go-to book for the French and Indian War. Second, there has been much recent scholarship on American colonists — both wealthy speculators and their agents (Washington was one of these agents) — giving land grant in the Ohio Forks region. These grants were what spurred the French to build forts, and this in turn provoked the English to respond. The Yawp text here is grossly over-simplified; especially considering that conflict between British administrators and American land speculators and squatters will be one of the major reasons for the Revolution. And we know this because it says so in the Declaration of Independence.

      Alan Taylor, American Revolutions.

      Colin Calloway, The Indian World of George Washington.

      Comment by Daniel on November 14, 2019

      While I have enjoyed reading the information provided, I believe that Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) and King George’s War (1744-1748) also need to be included into the text. These two wars not only assist in laying the foundation for the French and Indian War and showing continued conflict between the two empires, but also shows growing frustrations with the colonists and the British crown. The treaties of Utrecht and Aix-la-Chapelle could both be seen as a slap in the face of the colonists who fought hard to win territory, only to have to return it to the French.

  • 03. British North America (12 comments)

    • Comment by alaya on September 6, 2018

      im just tryna remove this

      Comment by alaya on September 6, 2018

      it didnt even work…smh

      Comment by George W. Bush on September 21, 2018

      maybe please don go

      Comment by Elizabeth Nix on October 3, 2018

      In an open-book exam, I asked students to describe the difference between indentured servants and enslaved workers, and many students went to this paragraph to seek an explanation. The inclusion of “tithable” is confusing to students, and while this point in the legal history can be clarifying for scholars, it makes no sense to readers in an introductory survey course. Also, I never found a clear statement of the distinctions between indentured servants and enslaved workers, but maybe I have missed it.

      It might be more useful to include this specific reference to the notion of an African woman being “tithable” in a footnote, but to state the legal status of enslaved people more plainly.

      Comment by Sean Dinces on January 30, 2019

      I think the Gallay reference should be in an endnote?

      Comment by noah matthew on September 1, 2019


      Comment by Dick Cheney on September 25, 2019

      I have your son

      Comment by Griffin Parker on May 9, 2020

      Unnecessary “the” before “even the Welsh”

      Comment by Jeanette Taber on August 3, 2020

      The Quinnipiac River and the Connecticut River are entirely separated by the Metacomet Ridge. They are not part of the same valley.

      Comment by nigga on August 30, 2020

      my dick hard

      Comment by nigga on August 30, 2020

      who else high asf


      Comment by Paul Trueblood on September 4, 2020

      Super weird that we say “powerful planters” for black people. pretty high key racist, also weird in the text it says “enslaved laborers” but when I click the edit feedback section it says “slaves” as it should. they were slaves. call them slaves, dont try to rewrite history so it isnt as bad. this is not history

  • 26. The Affluent Society (11 comments)

    • Comment by name on September 30, 2018

      fix “InIn” in the beginning of paragraph 67

      Comment by Destiny on January 4, 2019

      n hjvjhgvhvbjhvhjvtfxctfctfcftcftftvtgvygvuycyf6tfyttgyvygcyfygvuhhwuijrafhiuwefidjsbcouiadgvuhadbvcuhsdgfuchwdbvcuhwdbfuiwefiuwebfpijwbsfipcwerfuyweufhbedfuogewfyweadufhoiuwegf80uuewfiuewbfuewgfyedvy8ewvb

      Comment by Cary Hartline on February 11, 2019

      At the beginning of the paragraph, there is an extra “In” at the beginning of the sentence.

      Comment by Sam Coppock on March 5, 2019

      There are two “In”s

      Comment by Caleb McDaniel on March 20, 2019

      I’m writing on behalf of an undergraduate class of students at Rice University, who suggest:

      “We would suggest elaborating on the final phrase ‘in the hands of those who opposed it.’ It’s an incredibly nebulous phrase that fails to identify the full scope of massive resistance to desegregation, and leaves it to the reader to assume who the opponents of integration were. The photographs demonstrate resistance, but one way to incorporate it into the text would be to cite the Southern Manifesto. Several high profile political figures including all but three southern senators were a part of the aforementioned massive resistance, and they should be identified (for details on this and their names, see James Patterson, Grand Expectations, Page 398). This will improve the narrative by telling a more accurate picture of how Brown v Board was received by the country.”

      Comment by Autumn on June 13, 2019

      In paragraph 67, there is an extra “In”  at the beginning.

      Comment by Adam Prince on November 27, 2019

      Recommended citation for this chapter is incorrect as it reads-

      Recommended Citation: Edwin C. Breeden et al., “The Cold War,” James McKay, ed., in The American Yawp, eds. Joseph Locke and Ben Wright (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2018).

      Comment by Najaela on April 8, 2020

      [Boiling v. Sharpe ]

      The case that is referred to is not Boiling v. Sharpe, it is Bolling v. Sharpe.

      Comment by Najaela on April 8, 2020

      [ InIn the 1930s, the economic ravages of the international economic catastrophe knocked the legs out from under the intellectual justifications for keeping government out of the economy]

      The inclusion of two “In”s at the beginning is a typo.

      Comment by Najaela on April 8, 2020

      [InIn the 1930s, the economic ravages of the international economic catastrophe knocked the legs out from under the intellectual justifications for keeping government out of the economy.]

      A suggestion I have is to include the word “the” between keeping and government.

      Comment by nancy robertson on April 28, 2020

      I know you have to careful not pack too many names in, and I think it wise to include Joanne Robinson and the Women’s Political Council.


      From wikipedia, quickly, the point that she “stayed up mimeographing 52,500 handbills calling for a boycott of the Montgomery bus system with the help of the chairman of the Alabama State College business department, John Cannon, and two students.”


      Including this event allows for a discussion of “social media” of the 1950s, establishing women at the heart of organizing the movement, AND emphasized how many people were involved (I would include the estimate of the number of people who boycotted the buses and stress they were average people: maids, teachers, janitors).

  • 19. American Empire (10 comments)

    • Comment by Paul Villa on January 23, 2019

      Mahan was arguably the most influential American strategist of the 19th and early 20th Centuries. It would be helpful to include a selection from his work, “The Influence of Sea Power upon History” in the primary sources for this chapter.

      Comment by Walker Robins on April 10, 2019

      This paragraph basically reproduces the content of paragraph 39.

      Comment by Heath Madsen on June 18, 2019

      “For instance” used twice in close proximity. Consider revision.

      Perhaps: “In spite of their christian motivations, some Missionaries worked alongside business interests. American missionaries in Hawai’i, for example, obtained large tracts of land on which they started lucrative sugar plantations.”

      Comment by Ryan Facey on June 21, 2019

      I think the topic of Hawaiian annexation needs to be addressed with more detail. Sanford B. Dole, King Kalākaua, The Bayonet Constitution, Queen Liliuokalani and other details deserve to be discussed.

      Comment by Aims McGuinness on July 27, 2019

      The separation of Panama from Colombia took place in 1903, not 1901.

      Comment by Astrid N Avelar on September 11, 2019

      i love jungkook

      Comment by Kate on January 22, 2020

      Could put the time  period of when the chapter takes place in the introduction. Ex: 1990 – 2000

      Comment by Deirdre Lannon on January 31, 2020

      Please consider adding more information about Puerto Rico. In this and most other history books, it is simply listed along with Guam and the Philippines as the spoils of the War of 1898. It ignores the fact that unlike the Philippines, Puerto Rico has remained connected to the United States, with a proscribed citizenship since 1917. The US-PR relationship has left the island in limbo since the Insular Cases defined as being “foreign in a domestic sense,” and it faces the same problem in academic history. It is neither claimed by Latin Americanists, nor by United States historians. It is time to acknowledge the intrinsic connection between the US and PR, its imperial nature, and its catastrophic consequences.

      Comment by CHARLES FORDJOUR on May 13, 2020

      Too many people make it across the desert into southern US territory. With the stricter documentation requirements and heavier border controls in place, unwelcome illegal immigrants will be deterred. Actions speak louder than laws; America must authorize the heavier reinforcements against illegal immigration, not just say it shouldn’t happen. America promotes freedom and an escape from a lesser life. Each year people escape from terrible situations into America.

      Comment by Demika on September 21, 2020

      I HATE this picture!  Just tired of constantly having to see this!!!!!

  • 22. The New Era (9 comments)

    • Comment by Christopher Maples on October 10, 2018

      [In 1919, the UNIA announced plans to develop a shipping company called the Black Star Line as part of a plan that pushed for blacks to reject the political system and to “return to Africa” instead.”]

      I see that there is an unnecessary quotation after Africa at the end of this sentence, but please let me know if it is there on purpose.

      Comment by Cassidy Janso on March 6, 2019

      In the 6th paragraph of the primary source, on the 4th line, the word “the” is not spelled correctly. There is also an “s” in the middle of the sentence, where it is supposed to be attached to the end of the word “it.”

      Comment by Joseph Kirven on April 25, 2019

      Secretarty of the Navy Edwin Denby was never convicted and was never sent to jail. Please reference the Denby Family Papers in the Library of Congress Database.

      Comment by SI on August 5, 2019

      This chapter does not mention anything about Native Americans becoming citizens of The United States for the first time ever.

      If mentioned, please disregard.

      Comment by Melanie Gustafson on September 24, 2019

      Caption is wrong. It should be National Woman’s Party not Women’s. Plus it it is pretty poor caption. They implies ws was won by the NWP alone. What is the purpose of the tea party?

      Comment by Sunny Hicks on October 13, 2019

      last line: an America (not American) riven

      Comment by Bob Joe on February 10, 2020

      Actually, it was Roddy Rich who came out with the box who influenced the urban boom. Then the Indian remix was made, which made the stock market crs

      Comment by Colin Reynolds on March 1, 2020

      I think it would interesting to have a section on the Buck v. Bell (1927) case, as well as the eugenics movement more broadly.  It’s hard to know where to put it, but my best thought is here, right after the paragraph on immigration quotas.

      Eugenics always fascinates my students, especially because it was embraced by people on all sides of politics, who were in favor of all types of causes.  It’s hard to decide whether it was the darkest manifestation of social Darwinism or the darkest manifestation of progressivism.

      Comment by Hannah Riggio on June 16, 2020

      Remove the final quotation mark.

  • 07. The Early Republic (8 comments)

    • Comment by Catherine Seok on September 9, 2018

      typos: James Peale’s name and “responsible” are spelled incorrectly

      Comment by RIYA SHARMA on October 18, 2018

      Should say: roles as wives and mothers, not as mothers. 

      Additionally: typos as listed above.

      Comment by Loveday T. on May 13, 2019

      Shouldn’t the Republicans actually be called the “Democratic-Republicans,” since the actual Republican party wasn’t started until the 1850s to combat slavery?

      Comment by Noel Dionisio on October 3, 2019

      “White supremacist” – presentism

      “white supremacist” wasn’t a title/term used during that time period, should be changed to “white superficial beliefs/assumptions” or something of the sort

      Comment by David Ravens on March 10, 2020

      Replace with was

      Comment by Karen J Downey on August 1, 2020

      David, the verb should be the 3rd person plural “were.” It should agree with the subject “some,” which refers back to “changes” in the previous sentence. The verb should not agree with “victory.”

      Comment by Johanna Hume on August 2, 2020

      It sounds as if Lawrence is commanding his men to surrender, and the sentence must be re-read to be understood.

      This is clearer: Yet the Americans did not give up. Lawrence commanded them, “Tell the men…

      Comment by Johanna Hume on August 2, 2020

      Did the authors mean to use the United Kingdom in this paragraph?

  • General Comments (7 comments)

    • Comment by Jack Buchanan on October 31, 2018

      Some of the paragraphs the text size is smaller then others for not apparent reason.

      I don’t know if there is way to fix that but, if possible please try.

      Comment by Megan Cherry on November 9, 2018

      It would be fantastic if there were instructor resources (quiz questions, etc.) available as well.

      Comment by Paul Villa on January 23, 2019

      It would be useful to include in the primary sources for Chapter 6, the US Constitution, since so much of that chapter is dedicated to that document. It would also be nice to include a selection from The Federalist Papers so students can understand the framing of the debate over the Constitution. Given the polarized nature of the electorate today, perhaps Federalist 10 would serve the purpose.

      Comment by Andrea Gomez on February 15, 2019

      It would be great if you could highlight the text and underline it, as if it were a real textbook. Having a toolbar that allows you to take notes like you do in a physical book would be utterly helpful.

      Comment by Mike Rodick on October 31, 2019

      The book cannot teach for you, its not meant for that.

      Comment by Joy on January 21, 2020

      Where are the page numbers? I am using the online text for class, and we are asked to site directly from the text. However, unless I am missing something, the online text does not have a convenient way to find the page numbers.

      Comment by Monica Stenzel on May 18, 2020

      It would be wonderful to have text-to-speech function for the text and textual sources. Many of my students commute, are ESL, or have other accessibility issues. Also, they would learn pronunciations, as well.

  • 17. Conquering the West (7 comments)

    • Comment by Christopher Hastings on September 23, 2018

      The Battle of Whitestone Hill took place from Sept. 3-5.  Although the bulk of the fighting occurred on the 3rd, there were engagements on the 4th and 5th.  Also, estimates of Sioux casualties range from 100-300.  Might want to mention the name of the battle as well.

      Comment by Damian on June 28, 2019

      Annie shot apples off of her English Setter, I can’t find any information about a poodle.

      Comment by joeeee on August 16, 2019

      this is very bad

      Comment by Lindsay Marshall on September 23, 2019

      Titling this chapter “Conquering the West” perpetuates a triumphalist view of westward expansion and valorizes the perpetrators of genocide against Native peoples during the nineteenth century.

      Comment by Joel Frary on October 17, 2019

      I strongly disagree. The title is cynical is can be used as a talking point in class what “Conquering the West” really meant, themes that the chapter certainly doesn’t valorize.

      For example, I title one of my lectures “The Wild West” not because I wax poetic on duels at high noon, but because it provides a jumping off point to describe the mythology of the Wild West and why Americans engaged in myth-making.

      Comment by Justin Timberlake on February 11, 2020

      Should say “President Lincoln commuted all but thirty-eight of the sentences.” Missing a hyphen (-)

      Comment by Jeremy Jenkins on February 20, 2020

      Should be Native American, not Indian.

  • 12. Manifest Destiny (7 comments)

    • Comment by Kate Bennecker on August 10, 2019

      Is this what’s now called Oregon State, or the Oregon Territory?

      Comment by barthoumule on August 28, 2019


      Comment by barthoumule on August 28, 2019

      this all can be edited don’t trust it


      Comment by Kellie Marie Lavin on September 2, 2019

      Verb tense should be changed in sentence #2 of this paragraph. It should read:

      “This treaty ceded lands in Georgia for $5 million and, the signatories hoped, would limit future conflicts between the Cherokee and white settlers.

      Comment by Kellie Marie Lavin on September 2, 2019

      In paragraph 29, there is an extra word that should be removed. It says:

      “Not every instance was of removal was as treacherous…”

      The first “was” in that sentence should be removed.

      Comment by Kellie Marie Lavin on September 2, 2019

      In the sentence that begins “Not every instance…” in paragraph 29, the transition “while, on the other hand,” does not seem to fit well. This sentence might be better divided into two sentences, with some minor changes also made to the sentence that follows. Perhaps:

      “Not every instance of removal was as treacherous or demographically disastrous as the Cherokee example. Furthermore, tribes responded in a variety of ways. Some tribes violently resisted removal. Ultimately, over sixty…”

      Comment by Christopher Shelley on September 19, 2019

      The periodization with this is awkward. Manifest Destiny is best dealt with as a Western phenomenon. Indian Removal should be dealt with earlier under the Age of Jackson. Placing it here makes this chapter longer than it need be, and confuses the issues here.

  • 23. The Great Depression (6 comments)

    • Comment by Gru on March 4, 2019

      BIG PP

      Comment by Erik on March 14, 2019

      The 1937 strike at GM in Flint, MI was not “the first instance of a ‘sit-down’ strike.”  It’s debated which was the first sit-down strike in US labor history, but many cite a brewery workers strike in Cincinnati in 1884, or Akron, Ohio rubber workers strike in 1936.  The 1937 sit-down at Flint was probably the most historically significant sit-down strike, but not the first use of the tactic.

      Comment by The Croods on October 1, 2019


      Comment by Mike Timonin on March 15, 2020

      Honestly, this needs to be two chapters – one on the Depression and a second one on the New Deal. Combining them doesn’t allow sufficient emphasis on either.

      Comment by Rebecca Brenner Graham on May 22, 2020

      During the New Deal, the Immigration and Naturalization Service — under the jurisdiction of Frances Perkins’s Department of Labor — halted some of the Hoover administration’s most divisive practices…”

      Comment by Marybeth Powell Hamilton on August 12, 2020

      It would be more organized and easier to understand had the information been kept in chronological order as it is confusing that it swings back and forth to different years and it would be helpful to state years in parameters such as “Between the years 1929 thru 1940’s” The Great Depression ….etc at the intro of the chapters. Have a section on Key points of the chapter would be ideal as well.

  • 30. The Recent Past (6 comments)

    • Comment by chris parisi on April 26, 2019

      I think you have done a wonderful job of scholarship on what you have in this chapter, but I believe that there are some key aspects that shouldn’t get left out.  H.W. Bush’s Panamanian invasion and the ouster of Noriega is missing here.  I believe that it fits in with the long shadow of both Cold War anticommunism, globalized economics, Latin American foreign policy and the Drug Wars.  I would be happy to provide content if you wished.  My feeling was that it belonged somewhere between paragraph 10 and 11.

      Comment by Sean Dinces on May 28, 2019

      Should be “Katherine Harris” instead of “Kathleen Harris”

      Comment by Kerry Hall on July 10, 2019

      I would suggest less on Clinton’s attacks on Iraq while being sure to mention that a key cause of the Iraq war (besides WMD)was the false allegation that Saddam was allies with al Qaeda. Thank you!

      Comment by Anthony Speciale on May 10, 2020

      self-described “DEMOCRATIC socialist”. There is certainly a strong distinction, especially considering Sanders’ brand of democratic socialism could be more accurately described as social democracy, in the vein of the Nordic countries.

      Comment by Anthony Speciale on May 10, 2020

      Perhaps something should be added about the partisan nature of the #MeToo movement, in regards to centrist/moderate Democrats using it as a tool against Republicans, especially in light of how quickly these same Democrats who were #MeToo advocates in 2018-2019 were suddenly nowhere to be found when presumptive Democratic nominee Joe Biden had accusations against him. Meanwhile, Democrats and independents on the left who were #MeToo advocates continued on, even against a moderate Democrat like Joe Biden.

      Comment by Fatima Parada-Taboada on July 1, 2020

      I think you meant “beat Reagan” not “best.”

  • 14. The Civil War (5 comments)

    • Comment by Lacy J Hawkins on December 14, 2018

      I don’t think this is a “photograph” like it says it is.

      Comment by your mom on January 25, 2019

      the south was right

      Comment by madi on February 3, 2019

      You just need to insert the opening parentheses before “Peace Democrat” at the end of the paragraph 🙂

      Comment by Ian Iverson on July 1, 2019

      The characterization of Douglas as pro-slavery is misleading and confusing. While Douglas’ personal position on the slavery question remains up for debate (see Graham Peck’s Making an Antislavery Nation and Adam I.P. Smith’s The Stormy Present for contrasting perspectives) the fact that mattered at Charleston in 1860 was that he had taken a moderately anti-slavery stand over Lecompton– thus alienating Southern Democrats. The Douglas Democrats failed to adopt an explicitly pro-slavery platform at Charleston and stuck to popular sovereignty (with all of its ambiguity). For clarity in this paragraph, I would simply label Douglas as “a champion of popular sovereignty” rather than “a pro-slavery moderate.”

      Comment by Shannon Pait on December 1, 2019

      Why isn’t there information about Native Americans fighting as soldiers in the Civil War?

  • 27. The Sixties (4 comments)

    • Comment by Dave on December 18, 2018

      George Wallace did not by any means embody conservative views, he was a typical, racist liberal democrat. This needs to be changed immediately. This skewing of history books to fit an agenda bullshit needs to stop. Write the history as it happened. Stop being assholes, thanks. The democrats are the true racists from the beginning. They always have been and will continue to be.

      Comment by Bill Zeman on May 3, 2019

      The most prominent pre-UFWA Latino rights group after WWII was the GI Forum led by Hector Garcia. They first broke into national prominence by their support for Felix Longoria, a WWII fatality whose family was denied waking rights in the local chapel in Three Rivers, Texas. This greatly expanded their reach as they organized Latino vets all over the country to fight for GI Bill and voting rights. They were successful in these fights and even got the first Latinos appointed to high office as a result of their political support of Kennedy and Johnson with the Viva Kennedy and Viva Johnson clubs.

      They should have a paragraph of their own in the 1950s chapter, but at least a meniton in the line in front of MAPA and MALDF.

      Comment by Mason on November 17, 2019

      Dave, Please do not use foul mouth. Also, you wrote that comment at 4:30 am… how logical could your thought process have been.

      Hope you do well in life Dave.

      Regards, Mason

      Comment by Kellie Marie Lavin on November 23, 2019

      Paragraph 68 and 69 are in a smaller font size than the paragraphs that follow.

  • 13. The Sectional Crisis (3 comments)

    • Comment by Bill on September 7, 2018

      Last sentence doesn’t make specific reference to Haiti. Might be confusing for some…keep up the great work!

      Comment by Matpat on November 19, 2018


      Comment by Harry William Hanbury on January 8, 2020

      Please add John Brown’s first name and some short description of him to the caption beneath the painting of him.

  • 29. The Triumph of the Right (3 comments)

    • Comment by Andrew Paul on December 3, 2018

      I know talking about “liberalism” is alway going to be imperfect, but the phrase “economic liberalism” here is especially apt to be misconstrued. Instructors like myself take the time to peel back common (and historical) misuses of the term liberalism, and usages like this have the potential to undo some of that work.

      Comment by hi on May 10, 2019


      Comment by Lois Leveen on May 4, 2020

      This chapter should be titled “THE TRIUMPH OF THE CONSERVATIVE” or “THE TRIUMPH OF RIGHT-WING POLITICS” or something similar. The current title implies the correctness of those who triumphed, by labeling them merely “RIGHT.” I realize this is not your intent, but when writing for general audiences, it is important to consider how particular words and phrase might be misinterpreted.

  • 00. Feedback Instructions (1 comment)

    • Comment by clarissa mackenzie moland- gibson on July 13, 2020

      Capitalize “Black” the same way you guys capitalize ‘African- American”. “Black” is and can be used to identify an African- American, but being Black is now generally understood as the proper term for Black Americans who can’t trace their roots or, who were born in another country that isn’t Africa. In English, we capitalize proper nouns like Latinx. Asian, Indigenous American, and in reference to a culture or a person should be capitalized.

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